Journal of Public Administration - Volume 46, Issue 4, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 46, Issue 4, 2011
Author Mutuwafthethu J. MafunisaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1229 –1230 (2011)More Less
In reaffirming its commitment to contextual discourse, this December edition of the Journal of Public Administration continues with its function of serving the truth. This is clear in the quality and rigour with which the articles, research reports, and case studies, which all tackle contemporary topical issues of governance, are presented. The articles are engaging and relevant to our current context. Tshishonga and Maphunye's article examines South Africa's trajectory towards a democratic developmental state from a human development perspective. By relating human development to the concept of a developmental state, Tshishonga and Maphunye add a very important dimension to the discourse. As defined by the United Nations Human Development Report (1990), human development is concerned with the process of enlarging people's choices. This involves a whole range of activities that need to be undertaken, with the state being in the centre playing a critical role, which should be interventionist in its strategic, organisational and technical outlook in directing social and economic development.
South Africa's trajectory towards a democratic developmental state : a human development perspectiveSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1231 –1246 (2011)More Less
The article is based on discourse analysis which uses data from development literature. The notion of a developmental state is conceptualised and analysed through the human development framework as advocated by the United Nations Human Development Report (1990) (UNDP 1990)). The authors posit that by embracing the human development perspective, South Africa could adopt governance that is anchored in both social and economic development. This paper will conclude by examining whether the democratic developmental state is the answer to South Africa's economic woes. It will also consider whether the intervening variables such as leadership, ethics and education might expedite an effective and efficient developmental state.
Making community-based participation work : alternative route to civil engagement in the City of Cape TownAuthor Z.J. NdevuSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1247 –1256 (2011)More Less
The view that public participation is a crucial component of efforts to enable the world's poor to exert greater influence over the decisions and institutions that affect their lives is well established in the literature. Local government in South Africa requires municipal councils such as that of the City of Cape Town to develop a culture of participatory governance. Such participation is needed not only to ensure efficiency and sustainability, but also to accelerate broader provision of services such as alleviation of poverty, and provision of basic services and infrastructure by enhancing the community's understanding of public service processes and practice.
According to Shaidi (2007:46) public participation and consultation in South Africa is a legislative imperative as well as a core value of democracy. The Constitution of South Africa, 1996 mandates local government to ensure the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner and to encourage the involvement of communities and community organisations in matters of local government (RSA, 1996). In addition to requiring local government to consult communities on key issues, municipalities are also encouraged to establish ward committees.
AIDS councils - are they promoting public participation and partnership at the local sphere of government in South Africa?Author R.M. MarediSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1257 –1273 (2011)More Less
The South African National Strategic Plan of 2000-2005 and the current version of 2007-2011 on HIV and AIDS, gave effect to the establishment of AIDS councils within municipalities. Despite the existence of AIDS councils in the municipalities, there is a lack of public participation related to HIV and AIDS matters.
The purpose of this article is to establish whether the policies of HIV and AIDS councils in South Africa promote public participation and partnerships at the local government level. Public participation at local government is the key principle in governance as this is where service delivery programmes are coordinated, integrated and implemented. There is very little documented evidence on the functioning of the HIV and AIDS councils at local government level in South Africa, as this is a relatively new concept. The reviewed literature focuses on issues of HIV and AIDS with specific reference to clinical care programmes but minimal information is available on how local government, as sphere of government responsible for service delivery, responds to HIV and AIDS. Only a few articles from the review directly address the governance structures of HIV and AIDS and their link to local government.
Several bibliographic databases on HIV and AIDS council policies on public participation were searched. No restrictions were placed on the type of literature to be included; both peer-reviewed published and grey literature were searched, as the aim was to map out what is currently understood or known about HIV and AIDS councils as the vehicle of public participation at local government level.
The South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) has shown to a large extent great efforts in mandating and coordinating the HIV and AIDS matters of the country. But the SANAC mandate is encountering challenges from similar HIV and AIDS structures at provincial, metropolitan, district and local municipality levels. This is a result of failures in implementation of the mandate due to factors such as inadequate skills and competency and lack of good governance at grassroots level (Agu & Onodugo, 2009). There is a need to strengthen the capacity of HIV and AIDS councils at a local level in order to affect and effect public participation.
Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) and consultants' viewpoints on the public participation process of the Gautrain Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)Source: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1274 –1287 (2011)More Less
Public input and involvement in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process has become a critical aspect of urban management. Public participation ensures that the potential environmental impacts of projects are communicated to the public and, where possible, public input may assist in mitigating these potential impacts. Public participation therefore plays a critical role in the EIA process in South Africa. This article evaluates the differing opinions of Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) and project consultants in the public participation process, undertaken as part of the Gautrain EIA process. The Gautrain mega-engineering project has undergone one of the biggest EIAs in the country. The investigation finds significant differences between the opinions of I&APs and the project consultants regarding the efficiency to which I&APs utilise the information provided, the adequacy of the information provided to I&APs, and the effectiveness of the public participation process.
Structural provisions for establishing and managing Monitoring and Evaluation units in government departmentsAuthor E.O.C. IjeomaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1288 –1308 (2011)More Less
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) has become part of the new management and accountability tools being used by the present South African government aimed at fast-tracking service delivery and ensuring hands-on performance by political leaders, government departments, ministries and extra-ministerial public office bearers. The introduction of the M&E system is essential for continuous appraisal of levels of performance of government projects and programmes and its coordinating institutions and individuals alike. It is important to note that M&E is also the primary means of collecting and analysing information, and this is intrinsic to good public and corporate governance. In order for M&E techniques to be used in a more positive manner, management and staff within government need to have a common understanding of the importance of the process involved and the contributions of M&E in addressing a myriad of service delivery challenges being faced by government at all levels. One principal cause of the failure of many M&E efforts has been the misunderstanding at the design and implementation stages. The M&E functions differ from one government department to another based on the envisaged deliverables of such departments. This article considers available structured organisational options that would provide the much needed roadmap towards establishing and managing the M&E functional units in government departments and ministries alike.
Value of impact evaluation of public service transformation : lessons learnt from a South African Police Service specialised unitSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1309 –1322 (2011)More Less
This article examines the value that impact evaluations of transformation processes in public service units have to improve stakeholder relationships. An argument will be made on its value on easing unnecessary tension among stakeholders during transformation. This argument is based on the findings of two qualitative studies conducted in 2008 and 2011 with external stakeholders and members of the South African Police Service's Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences Unit during this unit's restructuring in 2006 and again in 2011. No impact evaluation study was done in either process. The results suggest that impact evaluation has the ability to influence the landscape in the public service and meaningful impact evaluations have the ability to improve stakeholder relationships in the public sector. It is suggested that a shift to an impact evaluation-centred approach during transformation processes in public service units is encouraged.
Implementation of a performance management system : a case study of Ba-Phalaborwa Municipality in LimpopoSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1323 –1337 (2011)More Less
This study evaluates the implementation of the performance management system in the Ba-Phalaborwa municipality. This is pertinent because municipalities today have become focal points for service delivery. The key contribution of this article is the implementation model it posits. The study was essentially qualitative in design and used a semi-structured questionnaire for data collection.
The study discloses that the system is currently flawed because, among other things, there is minimal employee involvement in the planning of performance management; there is a lack of training opportunities to address identified weaknesses, non-payment of performance bonuses to good performing employees, and the majority of employees do not know their performance targets as reflected in the Service Delivery and Budget Implementation Plan.
The study proposes to the Ba-Phalaborwa municipality the payment of performance bonuses to good performing employees, to carry out consultations with all employees on the implementation of the system, and the cascading of the performance management to all lower level employees as part of the model. The correct implementation of a performance management system will serve as a means to enhance organisational efficiency, effectiveness and accountability in the use of resources and in accelerating access to good quality services towards the attainment of a better life for all.
Author H.A. Van WykSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1338 –1350 (2011)More Less
The challenge of meeting strategic outcomes with limited resources has forced governments to outsource certain functions and activities to third parties. With the introduction of the New Public Management to public administration world-wide, much emphasis was placed on privatisation. This drive towards privatisation has led to an increase in the outsourcing of activities and is sometimes integrated with the public private partnerships projects of government departments.
Outsourcing of government functions has also led to various irregularities in the South African public sector and the prescribed procurement policies have not been implemented appropriately. Negative audit outcomes on expenditure relating to outsourced activities raise various questions as to what the volume, extent and nature of outsourcing activities in government departments are. The effectiveness of the control measures of these expenditures is also under a magnifying glass.
This article focuses only on the expenditure control of outsourcing through the supply chain management process and not on the effectiveness of outsourcing through performance evaluations of services being provided by third parties. In the following section a literature review is conducted to establish the extent of outsourcing in government departments and to identify the procurement policies that are in place.
Author N. MhlauliSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1351 –1363 (2011)More Less
Several cases of unethical behaviour by the Eastern Cape Department of Health have been reported over the past years. This paper indicates some of these acts of unethical behaviour displayed by the Eastern Cape Department of Health officials over several years. Maladministration, corruption and financial misconduct are the worst enemies of service delivery to have infested the department. Reasons for, consequences of and recommendations on how to curb the above are given in this paper. The above forms of unethical behaviour lead to the suspension of employees and this article also discusses the impact of suspensions on the department's budget. Recommendations on how the department can deal with suspension cases are also highlighted.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1364 –1383 (2011)More Less
The Republic of South Africa is a sovereign democratic state founded on human dignity, non-racialism and a multi-party system of democratic government to ensure accountability, responsiveness and openness. Governance is executed through three spheres, namely, national, provincial and local.
Because of its nearness to communities, the local sphere is, in the South African context, seen as the service delivery arm of government in ensuring the provision of services, for example, water, electricity, and sanitation. This sphere is, however, plagued by unethical behaviour, lack of integrity and zero good governance in the execution of its constitutional mandate as evidenced by violent service delivery protests by communities throughout the country, and adverse audit opinions.
The major challenges facing the local sphere of government which nullify or negate ethical conduct, integrity and good governance, are self-enrichment through the tendering processes where there is tender rigging for personal gain, extortion and nepotism, that is, jobs for friends and relatives. These corrupt practices are endemic in the local sphere of government. There seems to be room for using state resources for self-enrichment and acting from shallow self-interests while ignoring the constitutional principles of accountability, effectivity and efficiency in the use of resources. There is an obvious dearth of moral behaviour which can be imbued in municipal officials only when they accept that they are trustees for the public good. Craythorne (2003:260) expresses the view that acceptance of this concept has the consequence that responsibility and answerability cannot be avoided.
Admittedly, there are pieces of legislation, administrative frameworks and codes of conduct in place to halt the tide of unethical conduct and corrupt practices, and to promote integrity and good governance. The question arises as to whether these are adequate. This paper grapples with this question and is premised on the view that these measures are not sufficient and more needs to be done.
The article thus explores additional measures or approaches to ensure that the conduct of employees in the local sphere of government is above reproach, that their actions can withstand public scrutiny, thus enhancing good governance.
Author R. MukonzaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1384 –1396 (2011)More Less
Migration as a practice is as old as the human race. It has increased in recent times as globalisation has made it possible for people to gain knowledge of opportunities existing in lands beyond their borders. South Africa has been a destination point for many nationalities from within the African continent as well as those from as far afield as China, Bangladesh and Pakistan. This is mainly due to the pull factors such as peace and political stability, coupled with economic prosperity that South Africa has enjoyed over the years. Equally important are the push factors such as war, famine, political and economic instability that exist in source countries. The article examines how the state attempts to balance the demands of the need to maintain state security while at the same time satisfying the demands of integrating with other states both in Africa and the world. What are the contradictions that are inherent in the pursuit of the two agendas? The article argues that the South African immigration policy regime should meet regional and international set standards while at the same time addressing the local needs. Such a balance would advance South Africa's national interests in a holistic manner.
Author S.I. DintweSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1397 –1414 (2011)More Less
One of the most important trademarks of any democracy such as South Africa is the availability of policies which regulate all processes. These policies are a culmination of concerted efforts and unequivocal ability of legislators and policy makers to develop policies which are adequate in ensuring equality and the application of any law in letter as well as in spirit. A lack of such adequacy leaves behind traces of doubt as to the ability of government machinery and the extent to which a human society has civilised. However, any policy which fails to uphold equality in a modern democracy is certainly indicative of a moral and constitutional failure to report, analyse and take corrective action system (fracas). In the same breath, policy regulating medical paroles in South Africa should be able to ensure that all sentenced offenders who due to medical reasons qualify for recourse are able to enjoy such irrespective of political connection or their financial status in society. Any inequality based on the aforesaid cannot be purified by logical thinking. The theory behind medical parole is the fulfilment of the right to dignity of the individual and cannot be compromised merely on policy inadequacy. It is against this background that this article endeavours to analyse the decisions made by the Correctional Supervision and Parole Boards within the Department of Correctional Services. The literature in this regard is critically analysed with a view to establishing whether the policy framework within which these decisions are made is applied equally and consistently without fear or favour. In addition to a literature study, this article will pursue case law as a case study reflecting the decisions of the courts pertaining to medical paroles.
Interactive and transactive nature of the South African intergovernmental relations practice - a local government perspectiveAuthor F.M. Lucky MathebulaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1415 –1430 (2011)More Less
The local government sphere with its growing scope of government functions and a structurally declining institutional capacity provides an opportunity for a considered inquest into the practice of intergovernmental relations (IGR) as an interactive and transactive process (see Local Government Report 2010). For the purposes of this article, interactive refers to the activities that have not yet been contracted between spheres of government and yet have an impact on how governments will react to their outcomes, whereas transactive is concerned with a codified obligation to transact according to a defined contractual process. The legally binding integrated development planning (IDP) process by municipalities creates for this inquiry a context in which the various in-government relations occur. This article explores the interactive and transactive nature of intergovernmental relations from a local government perspective. A model that exposes interactive/transactive areas among organs of state will be utilised as a base system to provide a theatre within which the various combinations of relations can be analysed. Concomitantly, the institutional capacity challenges will be modelled to provide extrapolative scenarios that explain the interactive and transactive nature of the South African intergovernmental relations system.
Challenges and opportunities of democratic decentralisation in sustaining local government in Botswana and South AfricaSource: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1431 –1444 (2011)More Less
The authors acknowledge the legislative transformation of local government in Botswana and South Africa but warn that decentralisation requires more than tokenism. In essence, democratisation at local state level demands the genuine commitment and accountability of key stakeholders such as the state, organs of civil society and the general public, in decentralising and sustaining political-administrative powers. Decentralisation in the context of this article should be conceived as an instrument that balances power relations, more particularly for the locals to plan, make decisions in resource allocation and become the forerunners in prioritising development needs. This article seeks to evaluate decentralisation processes, particularly mechanisms to consolidate the functioning of the local government with a view to ascertaining the extent to which such processes and mechanisms engender people-centred democracy through an accountable and transformative leadership. This is critical at a time when state revenues are on the decline thus threatening to compromise requisite political-administrative support for local government.
In conclusion, the article draws critical lessons that could strengthen the intergovernmental relations as a precursor to render local government effective, adaptive and sustainable and further promote participatory governance. The article further posits that the dysfunctional nature of local governments is not solely caused by the lack of financial resources but rather in part by the lack of political will of leadership. Nevertheless, it is feared that central governments could use the global adverse economic conditions as a pretext to cut back requisite support for local government and render it helpless and irrelevant.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1445 –1458 (2011)More Less
The South African National Policy Framework for Women's Empowerment and Gender Equality, as well as women emancipation by government, present the opportunity for women at large to make use of business and political advantages to their benefit. This is as a result of a mechanism to redress the socio-economic effects of past policies on women, which imposed oppression and exploitation on especially black women. This study focuses on the influence of mentorship networks as a policy programme to empower black women entrepreneurs in Tshwane, South Africa. Mentorship programmes are aimed at empowering women, especially black women, who aspire to start and grow businesses. The data of the survey is analysed using the quantitative approach. The findings indicate that the South African Women Entrepreneurs' Network (SAWEN) Mentorship Programmes are not useful in empowering black women entrepreneurs.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1459 –1478 (2011)More Less
The study was undertaken in the Kroonstad area, Free State Province where a large number of people live below the poverty line and the unemployment rate is high (65%), compared to 30% in the Province as a whole. The article explores factors that hinder the survival of small businesses in the Kroonstad area in order to describe guidelines for government support that may enable those small businesses to be successful. The objectives of the study were threefold: firstly, to describe factors that influence the success of small businesses in this area; secondly, to identify education and training needs of entrepreneurs, and thirdly, to describe guidelines for government and other support that may enable these small businesses to succeed. A qualitative, explorative and contextual research design was used. Primary data was collected by means of phenomenological interviews. Secondary data included analysis of research work done in other similar areas. About 70% of the respondents did not know of government agencies that offer financial assistance, training and advice to entrepreneurs and small businesses. Only 30% of the respondents had business training, 70% had management training and only 10% had entrepreneurial training.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 46, pp 1479 –1487 (2011)More Less
Perspectives on leadership and leadership styles have gone through a gradual metamorphosis with particular regard to definition and pattern. They have acutely shifted from profoundly classical paradigms to very liberal democratic, if not participative ones. Different situations or times propel specific forms of leadership and approaches. However, it is critical to note that different leaders, whether in the public or private or semi-government sector, rely on leadership styles that make their organisations work. An autocratic leadership style is viewed as very outdated. It is, however, still alive in many post-colonial states and public organisations where the leader views himself as a commander who, therefore, must not be challenged with regard to his power and authority. This type of leadership is usually associated with professional brutality and cruelty. Many post-colonial African leaders are guilty in this respect. Democratic leadership fosters decentralisation of authority and responsibility. The main objective of this paper is to examine autocratic leadership with specific reference to characteristics, merits, demerits, factors that inhibit transition to democratic leadership and, finally, principles that can influence positive transition to democratic leadership. Most post-colonial states on the African continent have adopted an autocratic leadership style at some stage.