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- Volume 4, Issue 1, 2010
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management - Volume 4, Issue 1, 2010
Volume 4, Issue 1, 2010
Author Beverley KujawaSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp iii –vi (2010)More Less
The Department of Transport and Supply Chain Management at the University of Johannesburg proudly presents to you the fourth edition of this now accredited Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management (JTSCM) publication.
The Journal serves as an independent publication for scientific contributions in the field of transportation and supply chain management, i.e. logistics, operations management, purchasing management, distribution management, warehousing management, transportation (all modes), production planning and related fields.
JTSCM has grown in popularity over the past four years and this year presents to its readers no less than 15 articles from authors world-wide. Ongoing gratitude must be expressed to the international editorial panel and reviewers, without whose dedication the annual publication of the Journal would not be possible.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 1 –21 (2010)More Less
Much research has been done on outsourcing. However, we still know little about outsourcing based on a social process view on innovation. Outsourcing is an innovation as a logistics-related process that is perceived as new by the adopter. We will explore and analyse an outsourcing idea, its development and implementation, from an innovation perspective. The development is studied in a qualitative, long-term process study. The analysis draws on Hoholm's (2009) model of innovation processes. It extends the applicability of this innovation model and its methodology of following the action into logistics and supply chain management (SCM) research. The outsourcing process is an innovation that develops in a rational way based on the incremental process because of its actor-network and simultaneous reflection. Interactions and confrontations come about because of involved contrary forces such as competing objectives. The model explains the practice of SCM innovation and increases the understanding of dynamics and complexity. The process study brings insights to cause-effect relations in the development of outsourcing that are consequential to innovative logistics and SCM.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 22 –38 (2010)More Less
The liberalisation of the South African airline industry through economic deregulation established competitive domestic and international markets. Sustainability of air transport, subject to these liberalisation effects, depends on efficient management information such as total-factor productivity, which necessitates comprehensive financial and operational information. Total-factor productivity in general, however, is not utilised by airlines as a key performance indicator since the measuring thereof is complex and regarded as tedious. Changes in air transport total-factor productivity can be measured in two ways. First, an index approach can be adopted that shows the proportional change in the inputs in relation to a proportional change in output. Secondly, a production function can be determined (econometric approach) that shows a change of productivity as a shift in the production curve. The research on which the article is based, exploited the theory, selection and application of an appropriate approach to determine changes of total-factor productivity of an individual airline to assist / support efficient decision-making by management.
The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof : a South African perspectiveSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 39 –56 (2010)More Less
Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 57 –68 (2010)More Less
The complexities of being a supplier to motorcar manufacturers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), provide an array of challenges to component manufacturers. Customer-specific requirements (CSRs) add to the convolutions of a supplier's quality management systems when producing components for the various motor manufacturers. The catalytic converter industry (CCI) forms part of the component supply chain in the motor industry. The CCI consists of a plethora of suppliers to produce the catalytic converter. This paper focuses on three of the five main suppliers, namely the 'monolith substrate manufacturers', the 'coaters', and the 'canners'. Most OEMs required that critical and strategic suppliers should be ISO/TS 16949:2009 certified. ISO/TS 16949:2009 refers to an internationally recognised specification, specifically adapted for the motor industry. The specification indicates the minimum requirements and also makes provision for additional requirements known as CSRs that can be specified by the OEM.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 69 –88 (2010)More Less
Logistics firms play an important role in the economy but they have received little attention in strategic management and logistics management literature. This paper intends to fill in this gap by looking a specific strategising process, innovation, at an international third party logistics (TPL) firm. Using strategy as a practice perspective, the paper describes and analyses how innovation emerges and evolves over time. Drawing on an in-depth longitudinal case study of an international TPL firm, this study shows that intra-organisational interactions as well as inter-organisational interactions are essential in the innovation process at logistics firms. The innovation process at logistics firms is complicated and includes both top-down and bottom-up processes. It is vertically decoupled and multidirectional. Innovation at logistics firms emerges as a combination of an ad hoc response to a customer request and a purpose-driven interactive process.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 89 –101 (2010)More Less
The main response to sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a long-term optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.
Benefits derived by a major South African retailer through collaboration and innovation within its supply chainAuthor M.A.O. Dos SantosSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 102 –119 (2010)More Less
Current trends in the macro-environment, such as increased obesity within human populations, the damaging impact of human activity on the natural environment, the worldwide recession and the resultant changes in consumer behaviour, are all receiving increased attention by relevant stakeholders around the world. As the negative impact of these macro-environmental trends continue to be felt, increased pressure will be placed on the business community to help mitigate their consequences. This study demonstrates how innovation and collaboration within a retailer's supply chain enable it to profitably use some of these macro-environmental trends to create differential and competitive advantage in a saturated business sector.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 120 –137 (2010)More Less
Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.
Social norms and compliance with road traffic rules in urban areas : initial impressions of drivers in Kampala, UgandaSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 138 –150 (2010)More Less
Since 1998, the government of Uganda has formulated traffic rules for road drivers, set penalties for violation of these rules and deployed traffic personnel to enforce compliance. However, there is continued non-compliance with these rules, particularly among drivers of personal vehicles on Kampala roads. It is likely that the actions of these drivers are influenced by individual or social perceptions and pressures (social norms). These social norms include injunctive norms (influences from people that drivers respect), descriptive norms (influences from other drivers' behaviour) and perceived behaviour control (drivers exploiting available opportunities). The study explores the existence of these norms among drivers of personal vehicles and analyses the way the norms affect compliance with road traffic rules when moderated by road obstructions and control systems in Kampala, Uganda.
Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries : an analysis of road tolling in ZimbabweSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 151 –175 (2010)More Less
The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.
Author Charles MbohwaSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 176 –197 (2010)More Less
This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 198 –223 (2010)More Less
Effective supply chain management (SCM) requires organisations to work together in order to satisfy the needs of their end customers. Since organisations have to determine which processes and relationships will best achieve this aim, the design of their supply chains is important. Supply chain design thus forms an integral part of SCM and embodies the supply chain's structure. Unfortunately, too many organisations allow the design of their supply chain to evolve into its current form instead of planning their supply chain design (SCD) efforts. The literature is vague on what SCD efforts constitute. This article consists of a comprehensive literature study in which an effort was made to bring more clarity on exactly what purposeful SCD efforts consist of, and some key questions were formulated that organisations could use as a guide in their SCD practices. From these critical questions a conceptual framework has been developed that can be used to determine whether organisations' SCD practices are aligned with organisational objectives. The conceptual framework was tested at two South African organisations to determine if it indeed can be be used to analyse the SCD practices of organisations.
Author W.J. PienaarSource: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 224 –242 (2010)More Less
The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 243 –254 (2010)More Less
South Africa's national railway management is considering the further closing of a number of branch lines due to profitability pressures from stakeholders. This paper cautions against a myopic approach to such closures. Traditionally these decisions are driven by short-term profit motives realised through resulting core line densification. The research presented in this paper demonstrates the importance of 1) taking cognisance of potential branch lines flows; 2) considering freight transport externalities and road usage costs; and 3) understanding long-term demand, in informing closure decisions. The research results reveal considerable volume opportunities for branch lines which, if captured, will significantly reduce both the direct transport costs for this traffic as well as externality charges for the economy. This will therefore not only render rural economies more competitive but also enable the provision of more sustainable freight transport to these communities. The research approach will be of value to researchers in both developed and developing economies to inform the continuous debate regarding rail rationalisation and rail revival.
Source: Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management 4, pp 255 –267 (2010)More Less
The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA) identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.