n Acta Juridica - Accommodating user innovation in the international intellectual property regime : a global administrative law : intellectual property and GMO issues in global administrative law : part III

Volume 2009, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 0065-1346
  • E-ISSN: 1996-2088



Since the negotiation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) in 1994, the innovative landscape has undergone dramatic changes due to technological advances in fields such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and digital communications and computation. Notably, the negotiation of TRIPS coincided almost exactly with the rise in importance of the Internet following the invention of the World Wide Web and the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in the early 1990s. These technological changes have spawned major social changes, which are increasingly felt not only in developed countries, but also throughout the world. The resulting changes in the innovative landscape, especially as instantiated in the complex technologies of the information technology industry, have given rise to controversy about the proper contours of intellectual property protection and to upheaval in the political economy of intellectual property lawmaking. This upheaval is reflected, for example, in the split between the pharmaceutical sector and many information technology companies in their positions on patent reform in the United States.

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