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n Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg - Die grondslae vir von Savigny se teorie betreffende die saaklike ooreenkoms
Aan die begin van die negentiende eeu was die leerstuk van titulus et modus acquirendi in Duitsland op die oordrag van eiendomsreg van toepassing. Ingevolge hierdie leerstuk is eiendomsreg oorgedra indien (1) die vervreemder beskikkingsbevoeg was, (2) daar 'n iustus titulus (iusta causa) was en (3) fisiese beheer aan die verkryger verskaf is. Daar is aanvaar dat die begrip iusta causa verwys na 'n voorafgaande verbintenisskeppende ooreenkoms (causa praecedens) wat die bedoeling om eiendomsreg oor te dra en te ontvang omvat en wat 'n vorderingsreg (ius ad rem) tot stand bring. Lewering was niks meer nie as 'n blote feitlike uitvoeringshandeling waardeur die voorafgaande verbintenis nagekom is (solutio) en waardeur die verkryger 'n saaklike reg (ius in re) verkry het. Von Savigny het 'n drastiese verandering in hierdie siening van sake teweeggebring deurdat hy met die konstruksie van die saaklike ooreenkoms vorendag gekom het.
The foundations of von Savigny's theory regarding the real agreement
At the beginning of the nineteenth century in Germany real rights were transferred by delivery of the thing concerned to the transferee in one of the recognised ways (modus acquirendi) by virtue of a preceding obligatory agreement (iustus titulus/iusta causa) - the doctrine of transfer by way of titulus et modus acquirendi. Delivery was nothing more than a mere factual act whereby the preceding obligation was discharged. Von Savigny brought about a drastic change in this traditional way of transfer, in that he rejected the view that a preceding obligatory agreement was a requirement. He advocated a new theory, namely that real rights are transferred by way of traditio, which he described as a real agreement. According to von Savigny, the real agreement is a separate agreement which should be distinguished from the obligatory agreement as far as its contents are concerned - it merely consists of the mutual intention to transfer and to receive real rights (he regarded delivery as the form of the agreement). In German literature this characteristic is referred to as the inneren Abstraktion.
The two agreements are also separated from each other as far as their external formalities and consequences are concerned - the real agreement has to meet its own requirements, it is not dependent on the validity of the preceding obligation or any other legal act. Defects in the obligatory agreement do not affect the validity of the real agreement and also not the question whether a real right is transferred. This characteristic is referred to as the äußeren Abstraktion. Naturally, von Savigny's theory was not drawn on his imagination. The purpose of this article is to discuss the foundations and unfolding of his new theory, as well as the above characteristics of the real agreement.
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