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- Volume 2011, Issue 1, 2011
Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg - Volume 2011, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 2011, Issue 1, 2011
Author H.P. WestermannSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 1 –15 (2011)More Less
I am well aware that at an important conference like this, I have the honour to speak to a select audience of specialists from many different countries. I therefore had to consider whether or not I should try to present my topic without reference to any national legal system, which in my case is the German system. "Basic principles" would then be the basis of property law in more or less any fundamental legal system in Europe and other countries.
Author Eltjo J.H. SchrageSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 16 –37 (2011)More Less
Bribes under scrutiny of private law
Ten years ago the United Nations took an initiative which lead to the 2005 United Nations Convention against Corruption, accepted by the General Assembly as resolution 58/4 of 31 October 2003. The parties to this treaty obliged themselves to pass national legislation concerning prevention, criminalization, international cooperation and asset recovery. Most recent developments have taken place in the United Kingdom. Two years ago an excellent report of the Law Commission for England and Wales under the title Reforming Bribery appeared in England. The bill is awaiting finalisation in parliament. These remedies belong for the greater part in the realm of criminal law. In recent times, however, the question arose, whether or not private law can contribute to the struggle against bribery, more specifically when it comes to asset recovery, one of the specific targets (or, according to article 51: a the fundamental principle of the United Nations Convention against Corruption).
Author J.M. OttoSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 38 –61 (2011)More Less
Terms in credit agreements prohibited by statute
Contracts, or terms in contracts, may be unlawful on various grounds. They may be against good morals, or public policy or legislation. There is a strong interrelationship between the concepts of the boni mores and public policy, and both may play a role in legislative enactments dealing with unlawful contracts.
Legislatures world wide have strengthened the rules of the common law regarding illegal contracts. This was done in a variety of ways. Certain countries' codes made all contracts subject to the dictates of good faith or reasonableness. A later development was to prohibit certain identified terms in contracts concluded with consumers. A consumer is normally defined as a natural person who obtains goods or services other than in the course of his business or trade. The lists of prohibited terms in legislation of this nature are often referred to as "black lists" (ie lists with terms which are absolutely prohibited) and "grey lists" (ie lists with terms that are presumed to be unfair but may be proved to be reasonable in the circumstances). The concept of good faith, whilst playing an important role in the law of contract in South Africa, has not been recognised or accepted by our courts as a free standing principle that may be used to declare a contract or a term unlawful. A contract, or a provision in a contract, can only be attacked on the ground that it runs counter to public policy or good morals. Legislation dealing with specified prohibited terms in consumer contracts has, however, formed part of the South African legal landscape for quite some time. The Hire-Purchase Act 36 of 1942, for instance, prohibited certain terms in contracts covered by the act, as did its successor, the Credit Agreements Act 75 of 1980. The last-mentioned act was replaced by the National Credit Act 34 of 2005. This act builds on the previous legislation and has a black list of approximately 30 forbidden terms. In addition to this, the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 was passed by parliament. At the time of writing hereof the act has not come into operation yet. This act is the first one in South Africa dealing with unfair contract terms in general (in contradistinction to specified forbidden terms contained in a list). The act, like most consumer acts in the world, has limited application, however. It does not apply to all contracts.
This article firstly provides a brief overview of the methodology used pertaining to unreasonable and illegal contract terms in certain European countries, compared with the legislative initiatives in South Africa. This is followed by an in depth analysis of the prohibitions contained in the black list in the National Credit Act in particular.
Source: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 62 –75 (2011)More Less
In sy baanbrekerswerk oor persoonlikheidsregte, Grondslae van die Persoonlikheidsreg, verklaar Joubert dat daar geen twyfel kan wees oor die bestaan van die reg op identiteit as een van die moderne persoonlikheidsregte nie. Dit is inderdaad "een van die eerste regte van die mens dat hy as 'n van ander onderskeie persoon erken word". Bowendien is hierdie reg teenswoordig in beginsel ook tot die beskikking van private korporasies as regspersone. In hierdie bydrae word 'n vergelyking getrek tussen die individuele en korporatiewe reg op identiteit, 'n reg wat deesdae besonder bedreig word deur onder andere die prosessering van persoonlike inligting, die publikasie media en tegnologiese middele (soos identiteitsdiefstal).
Author Eric DirixSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 76 –79 (2011)More Less
A question that is puzzling me is whether after more than 2 500 years of legal history private law has not reached its final stage. Is there still anything new to be expected, for instance in contract law or in tort law? Has everything not already been said?
This raises the question of progress, which is such a central concept in our civilisation. Is there still progress to be made in private law? The notion of progress is of course a difficult one. When exactly can it be said that a new rule means progress? Success or failure of legal innovation cannot be measured immediately and may never be subject to rigorous empirical proof. (See Duffy "Inventing invention: a case study of legal innovation" 2007 Texas Law Review 1 5.)
Ongegronde verryking van staatskas en beskerming teen arbitrêre ontneming van vermoënsregte : aantekeningeAuthor J.C. SonnekusSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 79 –99 (2011)More Less
Die erkenning van ongegronde verryking en van die aanspreeklikheid van die verweerder ter herstel daarvan berus op die voldoening deur die eiser aan elk van die aanspreeklikheidsvestigende vereistes van die vordering. Indien 'n regtens relevante rede of grondslag vir die vermoënsverskuiwing bestaan, is daar geen sprake van ongegronde verryking of verarming nie en kan die eiser nooit slaag met die actio de in rem verso of enige van die condictiones nie. Naas 'n ooreenkoms as tipiese regtens relevante oorsaak vir die vermoënsverskuiwing kwalifiseer 'n vermoënsverskuiwing wat op enige norm van die objektiewe reg berus eweneens nie as sine causa nie. (Sien Du Plessis "Towards a rational structure of liability for unjustified enrichment: thoughts from two mixed jurisdictions" 2005 SALJ 142 144-146.)
Author Nicola SmitSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 100 –113 (2011)More Less
An employment contract is a contract of a unique nature. It involves much more than just the wage-work bargain, and ordinary contractual principles are not always appropriate in the employment context. In addition, the contractual agreement in the employment sphere is ever more impacted on by legislation and collective agreements. The court in African National Congress v The Municipal Manager, George Local Municipality (2010 3 BLLR 221 (SCA)) pondered the issue of when a resignation can be said to be unequivocally communicated to the other party, so as to constitute a valid resignation. Recently, in Mafika v South African Broadcasting Corporation Ltd (2010 5 BLLR 542 (LC)) the court considered whether there was indeed a resignation along with the question of what constitutes proper communication. The legal nature of the act of resignation (ie whether it constitutes termination, cancellation or repudiation of a contract) is determined by all relevant circumstances.
Source: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 113 –126 (2011)More Less
The Securities Regulation Panel ruling in the complaint against Nedbank Ltd and Syfrets Securities Ltd by the Pinnacle Consortium, Gardener Ross and Norman Bosman, delivered on 16 August 2010 (http://www.srpanel.co.za/Ruling%20-%20 Nedbank%20-%20Pinnacle.pdf (11-11-2010)), concerned the application of the mandatory offer rule of the Securities Regulation Code on Takeovers and Mergers (the "code") to intermediaries who hold securities of an offeree company in the context of transactions in derivatives. Although we regard the outcome in this matter as correct, we criticise certain aspects of the panel's ruling.
The best interests of the child : lessons from the first decade of the new millennium : aantekeningeAuthor G.N. BarrieSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 126 –134 (2011)More Less
The question of determining what exactly a child's best interests are is a question of fact that stands to be determined by the circumstances of each case. The judiciary has over the years attempted to lay down guidelines. Van Deijl v Van Deijl (1966 4 SA 206 (R)) for example emphasised economic, social, moral and religious considerations. It also emphasised emotional needs and ties of affection. In French v French (1971 4 SA 298 (W)) the court emphasised the child's sense of security; the suitability of the custodian parent; material considerations and the wishes of the child. The most comprehensive list of standards was proposed in McCall v McCall (1994 3 SA 201 (C) 204J-205G).
Middellike aanspreeklikheid van die staat vir misdadige polisie-optrede : die heilsame ontwikkeling duur voort : regspraakAuthor Johan ScottSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 135 –147 (2011)More Less
Die vlaag misdaad waaronder Suid-Afrika tans gebuk gaan, is waarskynlik ongeëwenaard in ons geskiedenis. Ons dagblaaie basuin, vanaf hoofopskrifte tot eenkolomberiggies op die briewekolombladsye, eindelose stringe feite uit oor die allergruwelikste vergrype waaraan die leserspubliek al gewoond geraak het en waardeur hulle ook al so afgestomp is, dat die aakligste detail oor 'n moordgeval soms minder animo ontlok as die uitdaging van 'n matig-moeilike Sudoku. Wat egter nog steeds die aandag trek, is wanneer daar berig word oor polisielede wat hulself aan die verkeerde kant van die reg bevind - waar die spreekwoordelike lang arm van die gereg nie alleen 'n hand het waarvan die vingers veel langer is as wat mens sou verwag nie, maar selfs verder "gevorder" het om rooftogte, moord, verkragtings en verdere ernstige geweldsmisdade op daaglikse grondslag te pleeg (sien bv Beeld (24-05-2010) 2) waarin daar berig word oor die beweerde betrokkenheid van 'n polisievrou by 'n plaasaanval).
Die Suid-Afrikaanse reg op persoonlike vryheid en sekerheid en die prosedurele en substantiewe aspekte van die amerikaanse due process of law-bepalings : regspraakAuthor I.M. RautenbachSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 148 –158 (2011)More Less
Gedurende min of meer die eerste vyf jaar nadat die konstitusionele hof ingevolge die oorgangsgrondwet (Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika 200 van 1993) begin uitsprake lewer het, het die hof die patrone ontwikkel waarvolgens die afsonderlike regte toegepas sou word. Dit was 'n moeilike en verantwoordelike taak. Daar was inderdaad stemme wat gemaan het dat die hof bewustelik inkrementeel van een geskil na die ander moes beweeg om die uitspel van algemene riglyne te vermy.
Choice of foreign law in a South African marine insurance policy: an unjustified limitation of party autonomy? : regspraakAuthor J.P. Van NiekerkSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 159 –174 (2011)More Less
On appeal from the Western Cape high court exercising its admiralty jurisdiction, the decision of the supreme court of appeal in Representative of Lloyd's v Classic Sailing Adventures (Pty) Ltd (2010 5 SA 90 (SCA)) will attract the interest not only of insurance lawyers, but also of those engaged in the intricacies of private international law. It concerned that rarely litigated corner of our law, namely marine insurance.
Is a demand for a higher percentage of share equity a mutual interest in respect of which employees may embark on a strike? : regspraakSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 174 –185 (2011)More Less
In Itumele Bus Lines (Pty) Ltd t/a Interstate Bus Lines v Transport and Allied Workers Union of SA, a question under determination was whether a demand for a higher equity shareholding was a matter of mutual interest suitable for protected action and whether the employees in question were allowed to strike. The Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (hereafter the act) allows every employee the right to engage in a lawful strike (s 64) for purposes of remedying a grievance or resolving a dispute in respect of any matter of mutual interest (s 213). The acquisition of shares from companies is governed by the contractual principle of offer and acceptance.
Source: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 186 –191 (2011)More Less
In this case the core issue was whether the minister of safety and security could be vicariously liable for the assault and rape of a woman by a police official who was on stand-by duty. Two relevant decisions of the constitutional court may serve as background before the decision in the F case is scrutinised: K v Minister of Safety and Security (2005 6 SA 419 (CC)) and Minister of Safety and Security v Luiters (2007 2 SA 106 (CC)).
Source: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 192 –195 (2011)More Less
Opleiding in litigasietegnieke vir die regstudent tydens die beknopte vier jaar teoretiese LLB-sillabus geniet min aandag. Weinig tyd kan afgestaan word aan die teorie van litigasietegniek. Praktiese opleiding ten aansien van die "self doen" ervaring word hoofsaaklik in skynhowe aangepak. Die deursneestudent in die regte kan gevolglik verwag om 'n skamele vyf tot vyftien minute per jaar aan die slyp van hierdie tegnieke in 'n gesimuleerde hofsituasie te spandeer. Tydens kandidaatprokureurs se leerklerkskap word hul met min of geen verdere ervaring in litigasiehowe ingedwing. Die posisie ten aansien van advokate in pupilskap is ook nie noodwendig ideaal nie.
Business Management for Financial Planners : A Guide to Creating a Sustainable Service-based Financial Planning Business, Lee Rossini and Johann Maree : boekbesprekingAuthor Peter NieuwoudtSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 195 –197 (2011)More Less
The Financial Planning Institute (FPI), which is affiliated internationally with the Financial PlanningStandards Board (FPSB), has made a significant contribution to the evolution of financial planning asa profession. Financial planning is an interactive process between the adviser and his client in terms ofwhich strategies are developed to meet financial goals and objectives.
Author Hennie StrydomSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 197 –198 (2011)More Less
Over the past five years, the subject of global administrative law (GAL) has gained significant prominence as a new field of research in which public and international law scholars have become involved. (See for instance Cassesse Global Administrative Law: An Introduction (2005); Kingsbury, Krisch and Stewart "The emergence of global administrative law" 2005 Law and Contemporary Problems 15; Schmidt-Aβmann "Die Herausfordering der Verwaltungsrechtswissenschaft durch die Internationaliserung der Verwaltungsbeziehungen" 2006 Der Staat 315; Trute et al (eds) Allgemeines Verwaltungsrecht - zur Tragfähigkeit eines Konzepts (2008), especially the contributions by Frowein, Wolfrum and Von Bogdandy 333, 665 and 683, respectively.)
Author Wouter De VosSource: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 198 –200 (2011)More Less
Given the English common law heritage of our procedural system it follows that the admissibility of evidence is a major concern for the parties involved in both civil and criminal proceedings. In typical common law tradition our law of evidence consists mainly of a variety of exclusionary rules, in terms of which certain categories of evidence are excluded. In the present context the focus will fall on the position in civil litigation.
Source: Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse Reg 2011, pp 200 –201 (2011)More Less
During and after my own articles of clerkship (we were not called candidate attorneys back then), I was convinced that somewhere a manual must exist that would take the pain out of learning where to be, who to talk to, what to do, and how to behave during your articles. As happens with all candidate attorneys, time flew past and suddenly I was not a candidate anymore and consequently did not care much anymore for the troubles of the generation that started their articles after me. This is of course a neverendingcycle. Every year since I have heard new candidate attorneys enquiring about this "manual" and have likewise heard a number of them, on hearing that there is no such book, expressing the view that they will be the ones to write that in order to unselfishly serve those poor candidate attorneys who will start after they themselves have qualified. Of course, nobody ever bothered to make good on this promise.