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- Volume 67, Issue 2, 2002
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap - Volume 67, Issue 2, 2002
Volume 67, Issue 2, 2002
Reformation and / or Renaissance? A comparison between John Calvin's and Thabo Mbeki's ideas of renewal : research articleAuthor B.J. Van der WaltSource: Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap 67, pp 135 –157 (2002)More Less
This essay compares the differences and similarities between the European Renaissance (±1300 - ±1600) and the African Renaissance in order to determine what an apposite Christian attitude would be. The first section describes the European Renaissance as a reaction to the Middle Ages and a return to the original sources of Western civilisation. Two different trends are distinguished, viz. classical humanism and evangelical humanism. The ideas of the great Renaissance thinker and evangelical humanist, John Calvin, about reformation receive special attention in this regard. He learned much from his contemporaries, but did so in a critical, independent way. From the five different Christian worldviews which crystallised during the Renaissance epoch, his Reformational worldview was the most strongly biblically founded one. The second main part of the essay first asks some critical questions about the African Renaissance and then provides a brief historical survey of past efforts at an African Renaissance, followed by an exposition and evaluation of Thabo Mbeki's ideas about an African Renaissance. The third main section of the essay poses the question as to what role Christianity can and should play in the African Renaissance. Similar to the attitude of Calvin, we should both learn from it and contribute to it from the perspective of a Christian worldview.
Source: Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap 67, pp 159 –176 (2002)More Less
In South Africa approximately 7 million people live in informal settlements and squatter camps. Constitutional provisions and moral considerations necessitate the urgent involvement of different segments of society to alleviate the plight of this hapless part of the South African population. Since the early nineties the government's policy regarding squatters has changed from the criminalisation of squatting and the destruction of shelters to the acknowledgement of the right to access to adequate housing and the principle that an unlawful occupier may only be forcibly removed if alternative housing is available. This has led to a massive influx of squatters to squatter camps on the fringes of towns and cities. This article deals with the factors that lead to the establishment of informal settlements and squatter camps, the types of informal settlements and the way in which such settlements and squatter camps can be upgraded to become adequate housing. The consequences of self-help schemes and pirate urbanisation, and especially the advantages and disadvantages of such measures, are critically evaluated. The administration of housing in informal settlements by local authorities, the provision of basic services and the eventual upgrading of informal occupation to ownership are discussed. To facilitate this, the government policy regarding housing planning should be further implemented by removing practical obstacles as soon as possible.
Omgewingsbestuur vanuit 'n Christelike lewensbeskouing - riglyne vir volhoubare ontwikkeling : research articleAuthor F.P. RetiefSource: Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap 67, pp 177 –193 (2002)More Less
The ecological crisis facing humanity requires that the current approach to developmental thinking and decision-making be reconsidered. This implies that the impact of development on economic, social and biological systems be balanced to ensure that the optimal outcome is ensured. Environmental management is a science that studies the interrelationships among these systems. The concept of sustainable development is proposed as the ideal approach to development and is considered as the ultimate aim of environmental management. Metatheoretical, philosophical and ideological viewpoints are, however, also decisive in determining our views on development. This article will provide an overview of Christian principles with regard to sustainable development that could serve as a basis for Christianity's approach to environmental management.
Author Bertha M. SpiesSource: Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap 67, pp 195 –211 (2002)More Less
The reversal of the conventional relationship between musical foreground and political background and the concomitant formation of a new relationship, that is political foreground - musical background, was the result of the (mainly legitimate) claims of new musicology. The concept of context may be accessed from a variety of theoretical positions, but this article focuses on the role of ideology within a contextual approach. It takes literary theory and current ideological claims as starting-point to view the strained relationship between text and context in a historical perspective. An ideological approach foregrounds the function of the text, rather than its interpretability. More specifically this article is an investigation into the possibilities, boundaries and limitations of interpretation. As opposed to either an approach in which the work of art is regarded as an autonomous aesthetic object, or a contextual approach in which matters outside the text constitute the primary concern, I argue for a more nuanced view in which text and context function as equal partners in a kind of dialogue. Finally I adopt the relationship between consonance and dissonance as metaphor to represent the problematic relationship between text and context.
Source: Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap 67, pp 213 –227 (2002)More Less
It is often assumed by teaching-learning specialists that teaching and learning are proportionally related technical activities, and can be accurately measured in examinations or experiments. The fact that teaching and learning are respectively, as well as in combination with each other, embedded in a multitude of pre-scientific and scientific presuppositions is frequently overlooked. This discussion is aimed at revealing that views and standpoints regarding teaching and learning can hardly be substantial or plausible without cognisance and evaluation of the epistemological convictions in which they are grounded. Such convictions also determine the nature of their application in actual class-room practice.
The uniqueness of cultures, universality and normativity - with special reference to the normative meaning of differentiation : research articlAuthor D.F.M. StraussSource: Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship = Koers : Bulletin vir Christelike Wetenskap 67, pp 229 –250 (2002)More Less
The inevitable presence of similarities between different cultures sets a limit to the (irrationalist) claim that the uniqueness of every culture precludes the comparability of cultures. Investigating the background of this untenable view opens up the way to arrive at a reassessment of the role of continuity and universality. This provides the basis of an account of the normative meaning of biotical analogies within the various normative aspects of reality. The characterization of undifferentiated societies in a contrasting way highlights the normative meaning of societal differentiation. Examples of an excessive expansion of the power of particular societal spheres, such as the domain of the church or the scope of science (during the Middle Ages and the modern development of society), demonstrate that the course of factual events frequently does not observe the normative (sphere-sovereign) structural boundaries for differentiated societal collectivities.