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- Volume 40, Issue 1, 2016
South African Journal of Labour Relations - Volume 40, Issue 1, 2016
Volume 40, Issue 1, 2016
Source: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 8 –24 (2016)More Less
This research explores the determinants of executive compensation in South African state-owned enterprises (SOEs). A quantitative research approach was followed and secondary data analysis was carried out. The target population consisted of 222 executives in 21 SOEs. This research has shown that the size of the organisation, type of industry and job function can be considered significant and positive determinants of executive compensation in South African SOEs. The findings of the present research also show that demographic characteristics are not significant determinants of executive compensation and should therefore not be taken into consideration when determining executive compensation in South African SOEs.
"We cannot discriminate against someone without an eye or a leg ... But I do look at obesity" : statistical discrimination and employers' recruitment strategies at housecleaning service companies in JohannesburgSource: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 25 –41 (2016)More Less
The landscape of paid domestic work has changed considerably in recent years with the growth in the number of housecleaning service companies in South Africa and elsewhere. Housecleaning service companies transform domestic work into a service economy where trained domestic workers render a professional cleaning service to clients. In South Africa, little is known about the factors that employers at housecleaning service companies take into consideration during the selection and recruitment process. A key feature of paid domestic work is the gender, class and race constructions of domestic workers, the vast majority of whom are women, usually women of colour, from low socio-economic backgrounds. Whether we are seeing a change in the demographic profile of domestic workers with the growth of housecleaning service companies remains unclear. This paper therefore focuses on the recruitment strategies of employers at selected housecleaning service companies in Johannesburg in an attempt to shed light on the challenges that jobseeking domestic workers may face. Open-ended interviews with managers revealed that gender, race, age, long-term unemployment, and technical and personal skills of job-seeking domestic workers have a strong impact on the recruitment process, while immigration status plays a somewhat reduced role. This paper concludes that housecleaning service companies have not changed the demographic profile of domestic workers in South Africa yet, and that paid domestic work is still predominantly a black woman's job.
Psychological work immersion enablers and behavioural indicators : exploring socio-demographic differences among staff membersSource: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 42 –58 (2016)More Less
Research on surface-level diversity pertaining to differences among gender, age, race and tenure groups regarding their psychological work immersion has been limited in the South African organisational context. The present study explored whether gender, age, race and tenure groups differ significantly in terms of their perceptions of organisational enablers and behavioural indicators of employee engagement as measured by the psychological work immersion scale. The sample was a non-probability sample (N = 1 268) of individuals employed across various South African industries. The sample was predominantly made up of females (74%) and black people (86%) in the early (49%: 21-35 years) and establishment (51%: 36-50 years) career phases. Most individuals in the sample had less than five years of work experience (69%). Tests for independent samples revealed significant differences among the biographical groups on the psychological work immersion enabler and behavioural indicator variables. The results indicated that surface-level diversity characteristics are important to consider in strengthening employees' work immersion as an aspect of employment relations. The differences observed provide valuable insights that could potentially be used by management in the design of business performance and retention strategies.
Decrypting the nexus between organisational culture, quality of work life, job satisfaction and employee productivity in the public sectorAuthor Chengedzai MafiniSource: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 59 –82 (2016)More Less
The recent recognition of the importance of the public sector as a major driver of economic success in any given country underlines the need to focus on strategies for enhancing the productivity of public sector employees. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of organisational culture and quality of work life on job satisfaction and employee productivity among employees in the South African public sector. Using the quantitative survey research design, a questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 264 employees drawn from central government departments in Gauteng. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the psychometric properties of measurement scales and hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. Organisational culture and quality of work life positively and significantly influenced job satisfaction. In turn, job satisfaction positively and significantly influenced employee productivity. Organisational culture exerted greater influence on job satisfaction than quality of work life. By implication, the labour relations environment in the public sector may be improved by nurturing healthy cultures and enriching quality of work life, thereby improving both job satisfaction and employee productivity.
Source: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 83 –107 (2016)More Less
The role of leaders in the pursuit of business sustainability has grown in relevance since the reported corporate scandals and the global financial crisis of 2008. This study suggests that conscious leadership, which differs from current leadership styles, is needed in order to achieve business sustainability. Using a sample of 371 directors and senior managers from 167 JSE-listed and 54 unlisted companies, the study investigated the role of conscious leadership in the achievement of sustainable business practices. Regression analyses and Pearson correlation coefficients, as well as Cohen's d effect sizes, were calculated in order to analyse the data.
The empirical results revealed that the respondents regarded conscious leadership as an important part of corporate governance, which led the present study to coin the phrase "conscious corporate governance". The results also showed that conscious corporate governance is positively related to healthy employee relations, and to the achievement of equal opportunities and workforce diversity, but that this kind of governance is negatively related to company profitability. The study explores the implications of these results.
Source: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 108 –120 (2016)More Less
Social movement theories applied to industrial relations are insufficient to explain recruitment and collective action focused on perceived injustices that are external to the workplace and that an employer has a limited ability to influence. The South African platinum mining industry has been characterised by increased collective action and the emergence of a new independent union at the expense of the incumbent union. The new union has mobilised primarily on external injustices that employers cannot directly influence. 299 Union members were interviewed of rival unions to examine the effect of using external perceived injustices as the main driver for collective action in the platinum mining industry in 2012/2013. The findings extend prior research on social movement theory and industrial relations and discuss the implications for unions allied to government and employers.
Author Jannie RossouwSource: South African Journal of Labour Relations 40, pp 121 –134 (2016)More Less
This paper reports a case study on labour substitution by a small-scale farmer on his farm in the Western Cape Province of South Africa that has been owned by descendants of the same family since the early 1800s. Production techniques used on the farm have moved from labour-intensive to capital-intensive. The first step towards mechanisation was taken early in 1988, when some of the farm workers did not return after their annual holidays and before the harvesting season. One of the decisive reasons for the change in production techniques was a labour strike during the harvesting season in 2000.
An analysis of gross income and production costs in 2012/13, based on capital-intensive production, compared to assumed costs if the labour-intensive production techniques of 1984/85 had been retained, shows an annual saving of R95 101 (19,5%) in comparative production costs. Moreover, capital-intensive production protects the farm against the danger of strikes and therefore reduces production risks considerably.
This research raises questions about (i) the morality of capital-intensive production; (ii) the full cost of labour, compared to the full cost of capital, when the risks of unreliable labour and of labour strikes are taken into consideration; and (iii) the risk of land expropriation.