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- Volume 35, Issue 1, 2004
Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa - Volume 35, Issue 1, 2004
Volume 35, Issue 1, 2004
Source: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 1 –5 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... EDITORIAL Corpus-based translation research comes to Africa The idea of investigating translation and interpreting through large electronic corpuses of texts (called corpora) on computer by means of computer programs was first put forward by translation scholar, Mona Baker, a little more than ten years ago. At the time it was envisaged that corpus linguistics, the discipline that introduced this particular type of research methodology in the eighties, would provide the methodology for carrying out empirical investigations while translation theory would identify the areas of enquiry and generate operational hypotheses. Since then the partnership has acquired a clear identity with a specific denomination, namely corpus-based translation studies (CTS). Its areas of ..
Author Sara LaviosaSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 6 –27 (2004)More Less
The idea of investigating translation and interpreting through corpora was first put forward by Baker (1993). At the time it was envisaged that in this new partnership corpus linguistics would provide the methodology for carrying out empirical investigations while translation theory would identify the areas of enquiry and elaborate operational hypotheses. The two partners would work in harmony mainly for the benefit of the advancement of the descriptive branch of the discipline. Since then the partnership has acquired a clear identity with a specific denomination, corpusbased translation studies (CTS), and has grown strong. Its areas of research are varied, ranging from descriptive to applied studies, and concern many different languages. The state of the art of corpus-based translation studies has been covered elsewhere (Laviosa 2002a). This article (re)examines, in the light of recent developments, what type of relationship holds between CTS and descriptive translation studies (DTS), on the one hand, and CTS and corpus linguistics, on the other. The aim is to try and establish which claims and predictions put forward in the past still hold true and which are the most promising areas of long-term CTS research.
Author Mona BakerSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 28 –38 (2004)More Less
Corpus-based research in translation studies initially focused on similarities and differences between translated and non-translated text, in an attempt to demonstrate that translations form a distinctive textual system within any target culture. More recently, researchers have begun to turn their attention to the question of individual variation within any corpus of translations. This article focuses on the latter strand of investigation and presents two small-scale studies which highlight such variation: one based on material from the European Union and the other on a subset of literary texts in the Translational English Corpus. It ends with an overview of the features of individual variation discussed in the literature and argues that the next stage of development in corpus-based translation studies must address the challenge of elaborating robust models for the systematic analysis of stylistic variation across translators of both literary and non-literary text.
Accounting for the exception to the norm : split infinitives in translated English : comparable corporaAuthor Gabriela SaldanhaSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 39 –53 (2004)More Less
This article presents a study that was initially designed to find evidence of standardisation in translated language, but which revealed a completely different picture from the one expected. Part of the Translational English Corpus and part of the British National Corpus were used to make up a comparable corpus consisting of eight million words of translated and non-translated narrative writing in English. Instances of split infinitives were retrieved from each component (translational and non-translational). The hypothesis was that this kind of structure would be less common in the translational corpora but the total numbers of split infinitives retrieved from the translational and non-translational components were very similar and thus contradicted the initial hypothesis. However, I will show that if we look at them in more detail we can propose new data-driven hypotheses that offer a possible and logical explanation for the results in the light of Baker's theory of translator's style
Author Martha MutesayireSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 54 –69 (2004)More Less
This article analyses the correlation between the use of apposition markers and the realisation of lexical explicitation in discourse. Some claims made on the effects of apposition in discourse seem to indicate that there is a relationship between apposition and explicitation. Explicitation is understood here as a discourse process consisting of restating in a more explicit way information given previously to minimise ambiguity or to guide the addressee in the interpretation of the message. Similarly, `apposition is used to make the message clear to the decoder by avoiding ambiguity' (BJ 3tea 1977, 461) and `apposition is predominantly a relation in which the second unit of the apposition adds specificity to the interpretation of the first one' (Meyer 1992, 73). From the definition of explicitation and the functions of apposition, it appears that the use of apposition might lead to explicitation. This leads us to assume that indicators of apposition may also be indicators of explicitation. The findings indicate that apposition markers are significantly more frequent in the sub-corpus of translated English (Translational English Corpus (TEC)) than in the sub-corpus of non-translated English (British National Corpus (BNC)). Three factors may influence the greater use of apposition markers in the TEC than in the BNC, namely (1) the carrying over in the target text of specific features of the source text, (2) the low level of shared information between the translator and (3) the readership, and the translator's style. This article also suggests that translated English may favour explicitation as a textual strategy compared to non-translated English.
Towards a corpus-based research methodology for investigating lexical patterning in translated texts : comparable corporaAuthor Carmen DayrellSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 70 –101 (2004)More Less
The primary objective of this article is to propose a corpus-based research methodology for comparing collocational patterning in translated and non-translated language. The analysis is based on a comparable corpus of Brazilian Portuguese which consists of two separate sub-corpora: one made up of translated Brazilian Portuguese and another consisting of non-translated Brazilian Portuguese. Both subcorpora are designed according to the same criteria and specifications, and are of similar size. The main issue under investigation is whether collocational patterns tend to be less diverse (i.e., are reduced in range) in the translated texts compared to the non-translated texts. Diversity is analysed in quantitative as well as qualitative terms.
Contrastive functional analysis as a starting point for corpus-based translation studies (CTS) : methodological considerations for analysing small translational corpora : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Maciej MachniewskiSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 102 –118 (2004)More Less
The aim of this article is to show the benefits of working with relatively small but carefully designed corpora of texts specifically selected for the purposes of a given study, and also to put forward a research paradigm for corpus-based translation studies (CTS) based on contrastive linguistics. The theoretical framework is contrastive functional analysis (CFA), a methodology based on meaning and looking at the ways in which meaning is expressed in a pair of languages (Chesterman 1998). For the purposes of the present article and, more generally, translation studies and CTS, a distinction is also made between translation-mediated texts and original (parallel) texts, as well as between professional and trainee translations. The article also advocates what may be called an eclectic approach to corpus studies: an initial, contrastive analysis is conducted on relatively small corpora of texts (cf., e.g. Malmkjñr 1998) and larger corpora are used at a later stage of the analysis to verify statistically the findings of the initial study and thus to objectify the final results.
Author Charles TiayonSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 119 –132 (2004)More Less
Based on an ongoing experiment at the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI), University of Buea, Cameroon, the present article discusses the rationale for what is referred to as the Translation Teaching and Learning Corpus (TTLC) project. There is argument for the distinction between general corpora and those that may be designed for specific purposes and properly itemised teaching/ learning tasks, with particular emphasis on the development of corpus models that give priority to actual learner needs and integrate both language-based and processbased translating skills. Hence, the importance of the three major components of TTLC discussed: the learner translation corpus, the discourse-item and process-item sub-corpora.
Parallel corpora as tools for developing the indigenous languages of South Africa, with special reference to Venda : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Mbulungeni MadibaSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 133 –147 (2004)More Less
This article shows how parallel corpora can be used as tools for developing the indigenous languages of South Africa. Parallel corpora provide a strategic means to fast-track the development of modern terminologies, bilingual dictionaries and glossaries for the indigenous African languages. The article focuses on the issue of translation equivalents. The analysis of translation equivalents is based on the English - Venda Parallel Corpus, which is a pilot project of the Special Language Corpora for African Languages (SpeLCAL) aimed at developing special language corpora for the nine official African languages of South Africa. The analysis of translation equivalents is conducted with Multiconcord, a concordancer developed jointly by the Lingua project and the University of Birmingham.
Translating technical texts into Zulu with the aid of multilingual and/or parallel corpora : parallel / bilingual corporaSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 148 –161 (2004)More Less
The single biggest problem that translators have to contend with when translating from an international language such as English into a so-called minor language or language of limited diffusion (LLD) such as Zulu, is the lack of terminology in the majority of specialist subject fields. In this article we demonstrate how special-purpose multilingual and parallel corpora can be utilised as a translator's tool in finding suitable term equivalents when translating technical texts into Zulu. Although translators working into languages such as, for example, English and French follow this methodology as a matter of course, it has (to our knowledge) not yet been shown how such a course of action may be applied to the African languages, and specifically to Zulu in this case.
A parallel corpus as a terminology resource for Xhosa : a study of strategies used to translate financial statements : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Koliswa MoropaSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 162 –178 (2004)More Less
In the past, terminology development in the African languages of South Africa focused mainly on terminology lists for schools. However, using corpus-based tools, Xhosa as well as the other official African languages can now begin to develop their terminologies in scientific, technical and other fields as well. The first step towards achieving this aim is the design of a parallel corpus of English and Xhosa, a project I started three years ago comprising various translated documents from government departments at national level. In this article I provide an overview of terminology development (or the lack thereof) in Xhosa, after which I discuss the usefulness of a parallel corpus as compared to a printed dictionary. Thereafter, I identify and discuss the strategies used to translate some financial terms in a sub-corpus of English and Xhosa texts.
'Pressure players' or 'choke artists'? How do Zulu simultaneous interpreters handle the pressure of interpreting in a legislative context? : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Kim WallmachSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 179 –200 (2004)More Less
How do Zulu interpreters handle the pressure of simultaneous interpreting? In this article I examine the interpretations of four competent experienced Zulu interpreters in order to determine how they handled instances of increased on-line attentional resource consumption when interpreting under difficult circumstances, namely during sittings of the Gauteng Provincial Legislature, South Africa. I found evidence to suggest that the use of loan words implies increased cognitive load for competent Zulu interpreters, who would normally attempt to avoid using loan words wherever possible for stylistic reasons, and who succeeded in interpreting the source segment without using a loan word on several other occasions. In other words, interpretation failures do not generally occur because the interpreters are not familiar with a term or concept in the source or target language. This is contrary to expectations, particularly since Zulu has a less developed technical register than English. The fact that the interpreters use loan words only when under pressure supports Gile's (1999) `tightrope hypothesis'. A second indicator of increased on-line attentional resource consumption during interpreting is the use of the enclitic -ke in Zulu. The highly marked incidence of -ke in the interpretations of both sittings could partly be ascribed to its use as a spoken discourse marker, but also to the fact that it plays an important role in assisting Zulu interpreters in managing both their attentional resources and their output. My findings are based on the analysis of a parallel corpus derived from transcriptions of dual-track recordings of the floor language and interpretations during two sittings of the Gauteng Legislature.
A corpus-based appraisal of shifts in language use and translation policies in two Zulu translations of the Book of Matthew : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Rose MasubeleleSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 201 –213 (2004)More Less
This article seeks to illustrate that translation policies that translators adopt may result in different linguistic choices. The recurrent preferences shown by the translators of the 1986 Zulu translation of the Book of Matthew can only be explained in terms of certain external, socio-cultural constraints. In this article it will be demonstrated that Toury's concept of the initial norm (the socio-cultural constraints) seems to have guided the translators of these translations in their selection of the options at their disposal. The initial norm governs the translator's choice between two polar alternatives regarding the translation's overall orientation. Using a corpus-based approach, the linguistic choices of both translations will be analysed to discern whether these translations adopted the norms of the source text and culture or the norms of the target culture. In the analysis it will be shown that the translators of the 1959 translation adopted source text norms and culture, whereas the translators of the 1986 translation adopted the norms of the target culture.
Author Ella WehrmeyerSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 214 –225 (2004)More Less
Corpus-based translation studies (CTS) is a very new technique in translation studies. In Bible translation, researchers have been collating corpora of source texts since the eighteenth century. In recent times, corpora of translated Bible texts have also been generated by a number of researchers. Thus the notion of working with corpora rather than with individual texts is not new to Bible translation. However, until very recently these corpora were examined manually, so that the introduction of computer-aided tools for corpus analysis represents a significant advancement for the Bible translator or researcher. By its very nature, the Bible lends itself remarkably well to (computerised) corpus projects. It is by definition a corpus of 66 books, and the pre-existing divisions into books, chapters and verses gives it an unusual advantage in annotation over literary works in the context of a parallel corpus. This article looks at the ways in which the Bible and its translations lend themselves to the formation of a specific corpus, the types of corpora and texts that could be considered as well as the challenges involved in producing these parallel corpora. The article then goes on to examine the potential applications of such a corpus for both the production of new Bible translations and the evaluation of existing ones. Applications to other nonreligious linguistic problems are also explored. In assessing these challenges, it becomes evident that CTS indeed redefines the nature of translation research as well as the role of the researcher. Finally, the status of existing projects to produce a parallel corpus based on Biblical texts will be reported.
Representation of poetry in Afrikaans Bible translations : a corpus-based analysis : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Jacobus NaudeSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 226 –247 (2004)More Less
This article aims to illustrate by means of a corpus-based analysis the manner in which the predominant feature of biblical Hebrew poetry, namely parallelism, is rendered in various Afrikaans Bible translations. Source language interference, as well as regularities and recurrent patterns present in certain translations but absent from others, are indicated. It will likewise be determined whether Afrikaans translations differentiate between poetry and prose. The article also introduces the corpus of Bible translations and religious literature which is in the process of being established at the University of the Free State in South Africa.
F. Scott Fitzgerald's Die Schönen und Verdammten : a corpus-based study of loan words and code switches as features of translators' style : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Marion WintersSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 248 –258 (2004)More Less
This article proposes a corpus-based study of translators' style, comparing two German translations, both published in 1998, of the novel The beautiful and damned by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1922). Corpus processing tools are used to carry out an initial data-driven analysis to identify potential elements of the individual style of each translator. The analysis homes in on the use of loan words and code switches as features that potentially differentiate the two translators' styles. The article concludes that the two translators have different strategies for keeping the local colour of the novel.
Author Charlotte BosseauxSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 259 –274 (2004)More Less
The issue of the presence of translators as discursive subjects and the relationship between translation and reported discourse have only recently received attention in translation studies. Mossop (1983; 1998) regards translation as reported discourse in which the target text is the <I>reporting</I> discourse and the source text the <I>reported</I> discourse; Folkart (1991) argues that a translation differs from an original because of the translator's voice or discursive presence in it; Hermans (1996) elaborates the concept of the translator's voice in an attempt to pinpoint the `other' voice in translation and, in an article written in tandem with that by Hermans, Schiavi (1996) designs a narratological model that incorporates the translator's discursive presence. By using corpus-based techniques and tools, in Bosseaux (2004), I investigated the nature of the translator's discursive presence by exploring potential problems involved in the translation of linguistic features that constitute the notion of point of view (i.e., deixis, modality, transitivity and free indirect discourse) so as to determine the effect of translators' choices on the transfer of narratological structures. This particular article reports on the translation of deixis, modality and transitivity in <I>The waves</I> and two of its French translations.
Shakespeare in Afrikaans : a corpus-based study of involvement in different registers of drama translation : parallel / bilingual corporaSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 275 –294 (2004)More Less
This article draws on a corpus-based study of translations of Shakespeare in Afrikaans in order to contribute to the debate on what CTS (corpus-based translation studies) can offer the translation researcher. Corpus linguistic methodologies are versatile and therefore it was possible to apply aspects of Douglas Biber's (1988) multi-dimensional approach to register variation to a parallel corpus of Shakespeare's <I>The merchant of Venice</I> in Afrikaans. In particular, the focus is on an investigation of the manifestation of linguistic features of involvement in different registers of Shakespeare translation. `Features of involvement' refer to those linguistic features which reflect that speaker and listener typically interact with one another (i.e., private verbs, contractions, 1st and 2nd person pronouns, analytic negation, demonstratives, emphatics, discourse markers, causative subordination, amplifiers, questions, time and place adverbials). The overall finding is one of a statistically highly significant difference between the two registers with the stage translation displaying more features of involvement than the page translation. Despite production constraints, the dialogue of a Shakespearean stage translation does indeed exhibit more features of involvement than a page translation.
Investigating explicitation of conjunctions in translated Chinese : a corpus-based study : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Wallace ChenSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 295 –312 (2004)More Less
This article presents an initial attempt to explore cohesive explicitation of conjunctions in a machine-readable corpus of English source texts and their Chinese translations. The study makes use of an English - Chinese parallel corpus and some software tools to investigate the phenomenon of explicitation in a systematic way. Results of a pilot study are presented to indicate the potential and problems of using corpus techniques to investigate wide-spread features of translated texts in Asian languages like Chinese.
Argumentative strategies and cultural differences in automotive industry advertising : North America, French Canada and France : parallel / bilingual corporaAuthor Genevieve QuillardSource: Language Matters : Studies in the Languages of Southern Africa 35, pp 313 –331 (2004)More Less
This article examines, from a contrastive text linguistic point of view, the argumentative strategies used by North American and French publicists and the alterations which are made in the translations to achieve an equivalent perlocutionary effect. The analysis is based on the assumption that argumentation is culture-bound and that the French and North American English publicists, as well as the translators, will not necessarily rely on the same theme to convince their target audiences. It draws on work done in cultural studies and in pragmatics.