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- Volume 39, Issue 2, 2005
Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig - Volume 39, Issue 2, 2005
Volume 39, Issue 2, 2005
Author Marthinus BeukesSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 173 –185 (2005)More Less
<b>Johannes Vermeer and Tom Gouws : textual discourse through pen and paint brush</b> <br>The poetic articulation of a painting takes place on the basis of the transposition of the visual text to a word text. In this way interaction between die poem text and visual text come into being. This interaction between poetry and the art of painting is of such a nature that one can speak of the poem as a speaking painting or of the painting as a silent poem. Seen within this frame, it is assumed that the poem helps to fill the painting with additional meaning. The poem's text is therefore an imaging of the content of the painting as a way of visual embodiment. In Vermeer's paintings the composition of the work of art is important regarding perspective, projection and fusion (merger) of an entire cosmos. In the same way the painter captures landscapes and beings in stylistic positions with brush and canvas, the poet makes a poetic painting using a pen as instrument to capture words. The objective of this article is to examine in which way the poem is a capturing or imaging of the painting's symbols. The poem text of Tom Gouws that is explored will be seen as a textual articulation of the painting. Poems such as 'ars poetica' and 'die kantklosser' will be read as speaking paintings of visual texts and visual writing through which an exceptional merger of pen and brush come into being.
Constructing international floors for language learning ends : reflecting on a teacher upgrading courseAuthor Willfred J. GreylingSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 187 –208 (2005)More Less
The main aim of this article is to show that teachers, as superordinates in an authority-based relationship, may consciously construct configurations of the interactional floor to achieve pre-selected language learning ends. The researcher, who participated as a teacher trainer in the TRANSNET-RIEP project, used classroom discourse as tangible evidence of teacher constructions of the interactional floor. Following Jones and Thornborrow (2004: 399-423), he argued that the teacher's discourse competence had to include the ability to construct activity-specific floors to achieve language learning ends. Arguing from a constructivist perspective, he selected the construct <u>+</u> <b>discursive initiative</b> as framework. The pole - <I>initiative</I> implies that the teacher tightly controls learners' contributions to the discursive process, while the pole + <I>initiative</I> relates to teacher initiations framing learner responses that replicate the demands of real-life interaction. In two cycles of an action-research project, the researcher experimented with activities on the continuum between the two poles. Using theoretical sampling, the researcher collected interactional data for two activities representing the medial position on the continuum of data types for the <u>+</u> <I>discursive initiative construct</I>. First, he selected an activity in which he was required to mediate the process of generating a dialogue with the trainees. Next, he selected an activity in which the learners were required to generate and practise prepared dialogues. Both dialogues were based on pre-reading activities. In neither activity were learners required to produce discourse under real-time communication constraints. The activity-specific discourse was recorded, transcribed and analysed. The interactional floors that emerged from the activities were then described on the basis of similarities and differences. Their typicality was defined, among others, on the basis of the <b>construct local-allocational</b> versus <b>boundary-restricted teacher mediation speech acts</b>.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 210 –225 (2005)More Less
In South Africa and in many other countries there is a concern that many learners in our schools do not have well developed reading abilities. Research in overseas countries has indicated that phonological awareness as a pre-reading skill influences the development of reading abilities. In order to verify overseas research, the authors undertook a research project to determine the relation between phonological awareness and reading success of a group of young learners in three primary schools. The results of the research findings verified overseas research in which a meaningful relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and later reading success was indicated.
Author Joy Christine Lwanga-LumuSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 227 –242 (2005)More Less
One of the main challenges facing speech act research is the strong need to widen the scope of languages studied on the cross-cultural level, so as to make valid and universal claims of the politeness theory. This article reports on an investigation into speakers' realisation, in Luganda, Luganda English, and English first language, of apologies as a basic act of politeness. The investigation sought a) to verify the working assumption that the languages involved reflect different cultural politeness patterns in apology realisation and intensification; and b) if so, to determine to what extent these differences reflect cultural norms. Use was made of Luganda and English discourse completion task (DCT) questionnaires administered to 200 university students. The results show differences in the selection, intensification, and norms of politeness in the realisation of apologies. Apology may be a universal speech act, but its realisation and intensification vary according to conflicting cultural norms. Theoretical and pedagogical implications regarding politeness theory are drawn.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 244 –259 (2005)More Less
Afrikaans teen-speak It is a well acknowledged fact that teenage talk, or adolescent language, differ from adult speech in many respects, and that this can be ascribed to their signalling of peer group conformity and solidarity. The sociolinguistic importance of this phenomenon is though still not fully exploited. Its innovative and pragmatic aspects and its roll in grammaticalization and language change only became apparent since the 1990s with the emergence of a number of empirical studies and publications. These are based on large corpora of teenage language for different languages like the "Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language" (Colt) (1993), "Jugentliche und 'ihre' Sprache" (1996), "Deutsche Jugendsprache" and "Sprákkontakt och ungdomssprák i Norden" (UNO) (1997-2000). For Afrikaans the first corpus of teenage language appears in Marais (2005). On the basis of these forms, collected from recorded spontaneous speech, from a questionnaire, from <I>JIP</I> (supplement of the <I>Beeld</I> newspaper) and from published youth literature, we argue in this paper that Afrikaans teenage language is coherent with international trends, that it may also be called <I>slanguage (slangy language)</I> as Stenström (2000) indicated for British teenagers' English, but that it differs in certain respects, due to Afrikaans teenagers' command of varieties of English and of Afrikaans.
Taalvermenging by die sprekers van die Sothotale : 'n linguistiese perspektief op die gebruik van hulpwerkwoordgroepeAuthor W.J. PretoriusSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 261 –272 (2005)More Less
The aim with this article is to prove that a unique language strategy such as the usage of auxiliary word groups in the Sotho languages is no longer productive in the spoken language. The focus is placed on the tendency to avoid expressions marked by auxiliary word groups by means of code mixing. Some transcribed conversations from a tape recorder have been selected to form a basis for the investigation. The popular usage of foreign words or expressions are highlighted compared to specific language strategies used in pure standard Northern Sotho to express equivalent concepts. Some existing perspectives from which research has been done in linguistic borrowing, code mixing and code switching are also briefly discussed.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 274 –291 (2005)More Less
This article proposes and demonstrates a method for the morphological analysis of Setswana nouns that could be used in the teaching of Setswana morphology. It provides a brief overview of the morphological structure of the Setswana noun in which the different morphemes of the Setswana noun as well as their arrangement are discussed. These morphemes are grammatical morphemes (prefixes and suffixes), roots and stems. Subsequently the proposed technique of analysis is described with suitable Setswana examples. A hierarchical analysis is employed to illustrate the arrangement of the various nominal morphemes. The focus is on the systematic development of appropriate frameworks by means of various arrangement techniques to analyse the probable components of the Setswana noun.
In hierdie artikel word 'n metode vir die analise van Setswananaamwoorde voorgestel wat in die onderrig van Setswanamorfologie gebruik kan word. 'n Kort oorsig van die morfologiese struktuur van die Setswananaamwoord word gegee en die verskillende morfeme waaruit die Setswananaamwoord bestaan sowel as hul ordening word bespreek. Hierdie morfeme is grammatiese morfeme (prefikse en suffikse), wortels en stamme. Die voorgestelde ontledingstegniek word dan met behulp van toepaslike Setswanavoorbeelde bespreek. 'n Hierargiese analise word gebruik om die rangskikking van verskillende naamwoordelike morfeme te illustreer. Die fokus val op die sistematiese ontwikkeling van toepaslike raamwerke met behulp van verskillende ordeningstegnieke om sodoende die moontlike komponente van die naamwoord te analiseer.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 293 –304 (2005)More Less
The measurement of second language development is an essential aspect of second language research. An index of development is an objective measure with which to measure second language development. This article focuses on syntactic accuracy in writing and describes the process followed in establishing an index formula that can measure development in writing. Criteria for an index formula are formulated, and the unit of analysis, the T-unit, is discussed. Grade 12 compositions were analysed and the statistical procedures used in the analysis (correlation, stepwise regression and discriminant analysis) are described. The proposed index formula is Length x EFT/T. This formula can be used in future to determine developmental progress in second language acquisition, and whether standards are improving or not. Pedagogical implications are also pointed out.
Linking English First Additional Language teaching and learning with outcomes-based education : what is really happening?Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 306 –319 (2005)More Less
The re-birth of South Africa in 1994 brought about the realization of new educational policies. The Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) approach was introduced in 1998 to advance teaching and learning of various Learning Areas in schools in South Africa. This article addresses the implementation of Outcomes-based Education (OBE) to facilitate the learning and teaching of English as a First Additional Language (EFAL) in Grade eight. It focuses on township schools in the Lejweleputswa District in the Free State province, previously under the Department of Education and Training. The introduction of OBE in South Africa aims to initiate an era of meaningful teaching. With an OBE approach, teaching and learning activities have the aim of empowering learners to succeed in "real life" after completing school. One of the main aims of using a language, for example English, is to develop communicative competence in that language. English though, is the first language of only 8, 2% of South African citizens (Statistics South Africa, 2001: 14). Most learners in South Africa need to enroll for EFAL. The manner in which OBE is implemented in Grade eight EFAL classrooms is vital to the academic success of these learners. <br>English as the language of learning, the acquisition of English as second (or even third) language, as well as OBE has been researched before. This study is unique in the way that it addresses the direct influence of the OBE approach on the teaching and learning process in Grade 8 EFAL classrooms.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 39, pp 321 –335 (2005)More Less
Effective second language medium of instruction refers to an instructional approach that differs from that of regular, first language content instruction or a language across the curriculum approach. This approach uses language teaching strategies in subjects other than the formal language classes, to promote both conceptual and language development in language learners. The purpose of this article is to suggest a scheme for training effective second language medium of instruction teachers in the South African context. In order to determine how teachers should be trained (both on in-service and pre-service level), the article proposes a profile of what can be construed as effective English second language medium of instruction (L2MI). It is then used as a template for identifying outcomes that need to be attained by L2MI teachers and for the design of a checklist that may be used for teacher training at inservice or pre-service level.