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- Volume 40, Issue 1, 2006
Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig - Volume 40, Issue 1, 2006
Volume 40, Issue 1, 2006
Author W.A.M. CarstensSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 1 –19 (2006)More Less
This article focuses attention on problems related to the implementation of multilingualism in a democratic South Africa, especially South Africa after 1994. It shows that, although many plans have been made and various structures have been established, the government, as main actor in the implementation process, only seems to be giving lip-service. References are also made regarding the role of Afrikaans in the process of making multilingualism a reality in present day South Africa.
Author Anne-Marie BeukesSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 21 –33 (2006)More Less
When the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB) was established in 1996 to manage language development across languages, promote multilingualism and protect language rights, it was heralded as one of 'the cornerstones' of South Africa's democracy project. This paper investigates PanSALB's mandate and role in managing language-in-education issues. Low levels of literacy, inadequate teacher education and a lack of understanding of the relationship between language and learning are major challenges facing post-apartheid South Africa. The paper argues that PanSALB should play a leading role in changing uninformed attitudes that have an adverse impact on government's language-in-education policy, in particular as regards policy provision on the use of indigenous languages as languages of learning and teaching. To this end, it is suggested that PanSALB partner with another government language planning agent, the Department of Education, with a view to devising and implementing appropriate long-term language-in-education policy marketing strategies. Keywords: language planning agent, language academy or board, status planning, corpus planning, vernacularisation, language of learning and teaching, language planning as marketing.
Author Marne PienaarSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 35 –46 (2006)More Less
This paper investigates the dominant use of English by institutional service providers such as courts, state hospitals and pharmacies, state departments and local governments, South African provincial legislatures and tertiary institutions of learning. It is argued that in contrast to other countries, i.e. Belgium, Canada and Sweden where interpreting services are primarily used to accommodate immigrants, South Africa requires interpreters to communicate with its own citizens. <br>The absence of interpreting services makes for an alarming level of misunderstanding and disempowerment affecting the quality of services provided by institutional service providers and barring citizens from information and help. However, when trained interpreters (liaison and conference interpreters) are available, a lack of insight into their role as well as a perceived breach of confidentiality, often result in frustration for all parties concerned. <br>This paper will attempt to give a broad overview of the current state of interpreting in South Africa with specific reference to the use of interpreting services to facilitate communication between state and parastatal institutions and citizens. <br>In conclusion, the impact of a lack of language facilitation, and in a South African context, the hegemony of English, on the individual's perception of his/her identity is considered.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 48 –70 (2006)More Less
This paper investigates the role played by Afrikaans in the cultural and personal identity of (formerly) Afrikaans-speaking South Africans living in the United Kingdom. It has two major objectives: to set up a general profile of the composition of this relatively recently established Afrikaans-speaking expatriate community, and to identify the domains in which Afrikaans is used by its members; and to use this information to consider a more complex issue, namely the precise nature of the interplay between language and identity in the UK diaspora community and whether this can be understood in terms of scenarios previously proposed by Fishman (1994) and Kotzé (1994). The findings presented are based on a quantitative, questionnaire-based study which required respondents to supply biographical data and information about their language usage patterns and attitudes, particularly as these relate to Afrikaans. In demographic terms, the Afrikaans diaspora community was found to be relatively young, with the members of the community appearing to have settled into their new environment easily because of the prevalence of English-Afrikaans compound bilingualism in South Africa. Language usage patterns proved surprising in two major respects: the rate of Afrikaans usage seems to be inversely proportional to the genetic and geographical closeness of the relationship between the interlocutors, regardless of the mode of communication; and Afrikaans seems to be maintained more in written than in spoken contexts. On the functional front, the complex function-mixing characteristic of heterolocal cultural enclaves, rather than diglossia, evidently obtains. Finally, generally positive language attitudes emerge.
Author Rufus H. GouwsSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 72 –84 (2006)More Less
Modern-day lexicographic theory prefers a user-directed approach where the needs and reference skills of a well-identified target user should determine the functions, structures and contents of a dictionary. This paper follows this approach and indicates the importance of the user-driven approach to ensure a less rigid application of the lexicographic typological classification. It is shown that it is necessary to substitute the generic lexicographic structures with type- and dictionary-specific structures. Suggestions are made for the application of this new approach to school dictionaries. The paper illustrates how the planning of the data distribution structure and the use of a frame structure can benefit the target user by accommodating the kind of data relevant to the day to day learning experience. Closer cooperation is needed between lexicographers and educators. New attempts need to be made to enhance the dictionary culture. This may lead to an approach where dictionaries are integrated into the text books to complement the formal study material.
Author C.Jac ConradieSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 86 –98 (2006)More Less
<b>Deflection and grammaticalization : the Afrikaans auxiliary <i>het</i></b> <br>While the development of the Afrikaans verb system was characterized by thoroughgoing deflection in its earliest stages, the language in its standard form still employs fairly extensive and complex verbal clusters. Finite form and infinitive have become largely interchangeable, making preterite agreement in modal verbs, and past participle + <i>het</i> insertion possible in former infinitive contexts. The rise in functional load and frequency of usage of the auxiliary <i>het</i> and concomitant structural changes in the verbal cluster as well as the cliticization of <i>het</i> are described in some detail. It is shown how complex verbal clusters have gained in versatility because of <i>het, </i> and how the grammaticalization trend already in evidence in the development of auxiliaries, was taken a step further by the auxiliary <i>het.</i>
Author Lionel PosthumusSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 100 –115 (2006)More Less
The inadequate and inappropriate descriptions of the so-called continuous past tenses or compound tenses of the African languages in general and Zulu in particular, supplied in the standard grammars and other literature on the topic, have resulted in students and teachers of these languages being unable to understand these tenses properly. There is no source that provides a systematic account of the full spectrum of relative tenses or the contractions that take place in these tense forms. This article offers a concise and apt description of these tense forms that are more appropriately called relative tenses. In this article the focus is on the morphological form and semantic content of these tense forms.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 117 –137 (2006)More Less
In this paper, we reflect on the rationale for including the <i>Who-am-I? Essay</i> as a learning experience in a Portfolio Development Course (PDC) which serves as a Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) point of access to learners wanting to register for the Bachelor's degree in Management Leadership (BML) at the institution. The main aim is to show that student-generated narratives about their "selfhoods" provide an opportunity to these learners to engage in critical reflection <i>(i.e. reflexive competence)</i> as they produce discursive constructions of the self in relation to an array of new perspectives gained from learning experiences in a series of intensive workshops. Thus, learners' <i>practical competence</i> (i.e. anticipating how ideas may be applied in the workplace) is developed and assessed on the basis of <i>foundational competence</i> gained from the knowledge covered in four prescribed PDC modules. One of the four modules, aligned with the management themes, and representing an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, focuses on textual cohesion and coherence, as well as essay-writing. The methodology in this paper derives from perspectives taken from narrative analysis, specifically Labov's (1972; 2001) sociolinguistic account of narratives and Riessman's (1993) focus on narrative structure, as well as Freeman's (1993) account of St Augustine's personal cycle of change. Analyses of a selection of discursive evidence from these essays are included to show the value of a narrative approach for both management training and management-specific language development. <br>In conclusion, we include a critical-reflective analysis of the Who-am-I? learning experience, and recommend some changes.
Author Luanga A. KasangaSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 139 –162 (2006)More Less
An investigation, using a locally designed survey questionnaire, backed by in-depth interviews with a selected sample of respondents, and notes from classroom observation, was carried out with first-year students at a historically black university on: their preuniversity writing experiences, their folk beliefs about the roles, usefulness, and shortcomings of different types of feedback (especially student feedback) on their writing. Among the findings was the lack of pre-university writing experience by first year students that confirmed the predicted need for writing instruction as a priority. Also unsurprising was the preference by the respondents for teacher feedback over peer feedback. Unpredicted, however, was the learners' openness to the use of peer feedback in revision, most often than not when peers act as providers, not as recipients. This article underscores the importance of reflective research as a source of information for innovative pedagogy: the findings may inform writing instruction and help anticipate problems in process writing as a transformational tool.
Author Willem BothaSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 164 –176 (2006)More Less
After the publication of the drama <i>Germanicus</i> in 1956, most literary critics considered the main character Germanicus to be very passive. Accordingly, the merits of the specific drama were in jeopardy. The reason for their objections centred in their judgement of the nature of the concept DEED (revealed as a derived noun <i>deed</i> from the verb <i>to do).</i> In this discussion the semantic contents of the relevant concept is examined against the background of the specific drama as a conceptual blend that came into existence as a result of the utilization of three different historical sources and an imagined world. Three different senses of the concept DEED are unveiled by the contents of the drama as a blend. As a result of their conceptual relationship with other prominent concepts within the drama - concepts that are intimately linked to the experience of morality - the different manifestations of the senses of the relevant concept in effect disclose a conceptual morality network within the drama. Against the background of this network, the morality of the actions of Germanicus is closely analyzed.
Author Willie BurgerSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 178 –193 (2006)More Less
<b>"But a poor reflection as in a mirror" : knowledge of the self and the other in Marlene van Niekerk's <i>Agaat</i></b> <br>The possibility to know the other (death as the ultimate other, others and the self as other) through language, is one of the central themes in Marlene van Niekerk's <I>Agaat</I> (2004). Milla's loss of speech, Agaat's initial inability to speak and the focus throughout the novel on narration, on the accounts given in language, as well as the very specific way in which language is used in the novel, indicate that language and the possibilities of knowing others through language, is important in the novel. It seems as if <i>Agaat</i> is permeated by the thought associated with the "linguistic turn", but the pure abstraction often associated with the linguistic turn is averted by the prominence of the embodied experience of disease and care for the sick, dying body. <br>The difficulty for one human to know another, to even argue with another seems to point at the impossibility of knowledge of the other. It seems as if it is impossible for one subject to know another as the other is always taken up in the subject's language. The only way in which another can be known, is as a character in the subject's narrative, but this implies that the other's otherness is lost - it is translated into the language of the self. In this article the possibilities of finding the other as other as suggested by the novel is examined. The central position of the mirror as a recurring metaphor in the novel invites a Lacanian approach.
Author Thys HumanSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 195 –209 (2006)More Less
<i>Klaaglied vir Koos</i> (Lament for Koos) (1984), Lettie Viljoen's first novel, was published during a time of increased militarisation and political oppression by the South African government. The narrator of this elegiac text is a white woman whose husband unexpectedly leaves her to join the armed struggle against apartheid. In the essay following, specific emphasis is placed on the ways in which the narrator attempts to come to terms with her feelings of loss and grief by means of her elegiac narrative. It is indicated that the narrator's "elegy" displays characteristics of both the traditional and the modern elegy, as well as the Freudian theories of mourning governing Sacks' account of "consolatory" and Ramazani's account of "melancholic" grief. As an elegy, <i>Klaaglied vir Koos</i> also illustrates Derrida's view of the "paradox of mourning": the (im)possibility of an interiorisation of what can never be interiorised due to the infinite alterity of the other. Ironically it is this very (im)possibility that eventually focuses the narrator's attention on the importance of letting her husband go and paying respect to him as lost other.
Author Ronel JohlSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 211 –223 (2006)More Less
This article uses a number of reviews on <i>In stede van die liefde</i> by Etienne van Heerden as point of departure in an effort to understand the dynamic game of repetition, doubling and dichotomy across the two narrative lines of the novel and finds in the dynamic plot view of Peter Brooks a useful instrument to initiate a non-reductionist reading of the novel
Isis as teksherkonstrueerder van liggaamsverbrokkeling : Breyten Breytenbach en Tom Gouws as eksemplaardigtersAuthor Marthinus BeukesSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 225 –238 (2006)More Less
Fragmentation of the physical body of Osiris, the Egyptian god, acquires iconic stature in the reviewed texts of Breyten Breytenbach and Tom Gouws. In Breytenbach's "Isis", from the volume Yk (1983), the brokenness and fragmentation of the body of Osiris is textually expressed. The numerous syntactic hiatuses, parentheses and ellipses force the reader to become co-creator of the text. In this way the reader rebuilds the broken textual body like Isis, with her healing hands, recreates the fragmented body of her brother/husband. Through the creative process, the poets force the reader to assume an active likeness of Isis. <br>Tom Gouws wrote nearly a decade after Yk a cycle of 14 sonnets in his volume <i>Diaspora</i> (1990), which contains an intertextual relatedness with Breytenbach's poems. By means of the diaspora of the broken body of Osiris, the poet attempts to reconstruct the brokenness through textual form and content. Through this process the texts become textual icons of Osiris's fragmented body. <br>The discourse between the work of the two poets constitutes further proof of the reader's role as healer of the text by tracing intertextual tracks and healing the fragmentation and dispersion of the physical textual body. In this paper I will argue that both Breytenbach and Gouws, by means of poetry, express the fragmentation of the body of Osiris iconically. In addition I will demonstrate that the reader is called upon to play the part of metaphoric figure of Isis to fill syntactic hiatuses.
Author Piet SwanepoelSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 40, pp 240 –262 (2006)More Less
HIV-testing within a VCT protocol plays a pivotal role in the management of HIV / AIDS across the world. However, research indicates that the communication interventions which have to motivate high-risk groups to go for VCT meet with mixed levels of success - some have no effect on rates of HIV-testing, others only a small effect. Very little action-orientated research has been forthcoming to explain why these campaigns have such limited success and what can be done to improve their motivational efficacy. <br>In this article the focus falls on problems with the design of the messaging of VCT campaign texts as variable that determines their motivational efficacy In Section 2 a critical analysis is provided of two general approaches to health promotion that critically determine the goals, design, and finally the motivational efficacy of the messaging of such campaigns: the Social Marketing-Persuasion approach, the Critical Empowerment approach, and its off-spin, the Decision Aid approach. Section 3 presents a case study of how the designers of a corpus Dutch VCT campaign texts align themselves with these general approaches, how they interpret the goals of the messaging of their VCT campaign texts and what message strategies they employ in the attempt to motivate high-risk individuals to go for VCT. Section 4 outlines a number of areas for urgent action-orientated research.