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- Volume 45, Issue 2, 2011
Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig - Volume 45, Issue 2, 2011
Volume 45, Issue 2, 2011
Author Bertus Van RooySource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 4 –6 (2011)More Less
The executive committee of the South African Association for Language Teaching decided to dedicate a special issue of the Journal for Language Teaching to Professor Johann L. van der Walt, who turns 65 in June 2012. To ensure that the issue appears before the joint SAALT/LSSA/SAALA conference, this issue, volume 45 number 2 was selected. It will be presented officially to Johann at the conference.
Linking reading literacy assessment and teaching : rethinking preservice teacher training programmes in the Foundation PhaseAuthor Carisma NelSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 9 –30 (2011)More Less
Assessment is a common task in education and has many varied purposes. One of these is the use of assessment data to make decisions about teaching and support to struggling learners. Teacher preparation programmes should provide candidates with a rigorous, research-based curriculum and opportunities to practice a range of predefined skills and knowledge, including a focus on linking reading literacy assessment and teaching. According to the International Reading Association (2003) position statement, Investment in Teacher Preparation in the United States, teacher education programmes should ensure that teachers, amongst other crucial aspects, "know how to assess the progress of every learner and change teaching when it is not working; know how to communicate results of assessments to various stakeholders, especially parents". The purpose of this paper is to determine to what extent the content of a BEd Foundation Phase teacher preparation programme focuses on the assessment of the essential components of early reading instruction, and to what extent the content focuses on linking the aforementioned assessment with instructional decision-making.
Tlhatlhobo ke tiro ya ka gale ka mo thutong mme e na le mesola e mentsi e e farologanang. Tiro e nngwe ke go dirisa tshedimosetso ya tlhatlhobo go ka tsaya dikgato ka ga go ruta le go ema nokeng barutwana ba ba imelwang. Diporokerama tsa go ruta barutabana di tshwanetse go ba naya kharikhulamo e e maatla e e tshegediwang ke patlisiso le tshono ya go ka dirisa mefutafuta ya bokgoni le kitso e e tlhalositsweng mme go akareditswe le tsepamo mo kamanong magareng a tlhatlhobo ya puisokwalo ya go bala le go ruta. Go ya ka polelo ya maemo ya Tsalano ya Puiso ya Boditšhabatšhaba (2003) ya Tsadiso mo Katisong ya Barutabana ka mo US, diporokerama tsa katiso ya barutabana di tshwanetse go netefatsa gore barutabana, magareng a mabaka a a botlhokwa, ba tshwanetse go "Itse go tlhatlhoba tswelelopele ya morutwana yo mongwe le yo mongwe le go fetola mokgwa wa go ruta fa o sa siama mme itse go tlhaeletsana diphetho tsa tlhatlhobo mo batsayakarolong ba ba farologaneng le mo batsading".
Maikemisetso a pampiri e ke go tlhomamisa gore ke ka mokgwa ofe diteng tsa porokeramo ya katiso ya morutabana wa BEd wa Kgato ya Motheo di lebelelang thata tlhatlhobo ya dikarolo tse di botlhokwa tsa go ruta go buisa mo tshimologong le gore ke ka mokgwa ofe diteng di kopantshwang le tlhatlhobo ê mme di amana jang le dikgato tsa go tsewa mo go ruteng.
Language awareness and communication as part of teacher education at the University of Pretoria, South AfricaSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 32 –45 (2011)More Less
Teacher language proficiency is central to learner success - where a teacher is not proficient in the medium of instruction the likelihood of a learner experiencing success is minimal. Within the South African context the majority of teachers (and learners) are not home language speakers of English and thus ensuring teacher proficiency to teach through the medium of instruction is vital. Success in the classroom depends on the teacher's discourse and interactive skills, and requires effective communication skills and a high level of language proficiency. Teachers need to be aware of the importance of language in their classrooms, regardless of which subject or learning area they teach.
To address the issue of teacher language proficiency, the University of Pretoria requires all students in the BEd programme to complete a one year module dealing with teacher language awareness. This module, entitled "Language across the Curriculum" (JTK 200), is for some students teachers the only exposure to teacher English language awareness. It is, indeed, questionable if a single year module can address the entire scope of teacher language awareness. This article focuses on the issues surrounding teacher English language proficiency and the design of the theoretical aspects demonstrated through community engagement projects as constituted in the current JTK 200 module.
This article addresses issues of course design and development with regards to teacher language proficiency, what has been learned thus far and how this will be incorporated into future offerings of the course.
Author Rose-Marie McCabeSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 47 –67 (2011)More Less
Academic Literacy (AL) or English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses have been initiated at various South African Institutions of Higher Education to assist English Second Language students in their tertiary studies. This article presents the choices that may confront course or materials designers when developing such courses for mainly rural students. The choices mainly lie between English for general purposes or for specific purposes; whether to focus on academic literacy or on study skills; which approach or method is most appropriate for teaching English in an academic literacy course to speakers of vernaculars particularly in a rural context. Whether to adapt the level of complexity of the course and the materials to the level of language skills and proficiency with which rural students enter the university or to expect them to cope with a set standard, also needs to be considered. The choices made for the context of this study were based on the findings of a study of the development of evaluation criteria for tertiary in-house EAP materials for first-entering students at the University of Limpopo (UL), but could also apply to any institution hosting learners from impoverished English input contexts such as rural Limpopo.
Preparing pre-service teachers for multilingual classrooms - designing a multiple African language moduleAuthor Rinelle EvansSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 69 –82 (2011)More Less
South African classrooms have become increasingly diverse and the shifting demographics of the instructional context have necessitated a change in the way pre-service students are prepared for the linguistic and cultural diversity of their future classrooms. In response to this, undergraduates enrolled in the Faculty of Education at the University of Pretoria are now required to extend their personal language repertoire by acquiring a functional knowledge of words and appropriate phrases for instructional purposes in an African language (Afrikaans, Northern Sotho, Tswana or Zulu). A particular innovation of this new credit-bearing module has been the creation of a multimedia CD with visual and audio course content (read by native speakers). The module also offers a historical overview of the linguistic diversity encountered in especially urban classrooms as well as an appreciation of diversity in the pedagogical context. This article addresses the challenge and process of the curriculum design using the classic ADDIE model. It also documents student reaction to the compulsory module as well as their experience of language learning.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 84 –98 (2011)More Less
Given the multilingual nature of South African communities, schools are usually linguistically diverse. These contexts create a challenging environment for teaching effectiveness given the fact that learners are required to use high status languages for academic purposes. It is therefore important that teacher education programmes recognise and respond effectively to this challenge. We argue that the demand for every teacher to be a language teacher is a useful way of framing how we view teaching in multilingual environments. We report on a course called Multilingual Education, a module on a Post-graduate Certificate in Education at Stellenbosch University. In the article the focus is on materials design as one important aspect of bilingual practice as well as evidence of increased language awareness. We discuss student perceptions of the course in the form of qualitative data collected by the lecturers responsible for the module and quantitative data in the shape of formal student feedback collected by the university. We conclude by highlighting the value of such courses as well as the awareness of multilingualism that it raised with students who were preparing to teach in these linguistically diverse contexts.
Author Albert WeidemanSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 100 –113 (2011)More Less
Though there are many conditions for drafting language tests responsibly, this contribution focuses first on how to operationalise a set of three critically important design principles for such tests. For the last thirty years or so, developers of language tests have agreed that the most important design principle emanates from our ability to give a theoretical justification for what it is that we are measuring. Without this, we eventually have very little ground for a responsible interpretation of test results, which is a second, though not secondary, principle for language test design. There is a third principle involved, which is that the measuring instrument must be consistent and stable. The paper investigates how a blueprint for an academic literacy test may be conceptualised, how that could be operationalised, and demonstrates how pilot tests are analysed with a view to refining them. Finally, that leads to a consideration of how to arrive at a final draft test, and how valid and appropriate interpretations of its results may be made. Since the three conditions for language tests focussed on here are not the only design principles for such applied linguistic instruments, the discussion is placed in a broader philosophical framework for designing language tests that also includes a consideration of some of the remaining design principles for language testing.
Test and context : the use of the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL) at a tertiary institution in Việt NamSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 115 –131 (2011)More Less
Concern for the academic success of undergraduate students with low literacy levels is by no means unique to South Africa. In response to initiatives by the Ministry of Education and Training to standardise and improve the quality of higher education in the country in accordance with international standards, the University of Đà Nẵng in Việt Nam recently tested out a pilot version of the South African designed Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL) at its College of Foreign Languages (CFL). This article examines the appropriateness of the TALL for use at an institution such as the CFL in Việt Nam and compares the literacy levels of students studying at the college with those of a similar group of students at the University of Pretoria. The research findings show that the TALL exceeds the set requirements for international language tests in terms of reliability and that it has high construct validity. In addition hereto the test has proven to be highly feasible to administer, particularly with due consideration to time constraints and practicality. Academic literacy levels were found to be lower amongst the cohort of Vietnamese students than amongst a comparable group of South African students. Recommendations for the continued employment of the test in Việt Nam include doing differential item function analyses to explore gender and cultural differences, the minor refinement of less productive task items, and a slightly shorter test version.
Linguistic penetration at Schneider's Phase 4 : acceptability ratings of entrenched features of Black South African English by South Africans outside the originating culture of the varietyAuthor Brenda SpencerSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 133 –149 (2011)More Less
This study has its theoretical roots at the juncture between World Englishes theory, Black South African English (BSAE) as a variety of English, and pedagogy. The study determined acceptability ratings (AR) of selected, entrenched features of BSAE by L1 English and Afrikaans-speaking South African education students in their third year of university. Tolerance for features of BSAE in formal, academic writing suggests that a wider acceptance of BSAE is emerging. I argue that even a low level of acceptance of features of BSAE by this sample group can suggest linguistic convergence and initial entry into Phase 4 of Schneider's (2009) Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes. This is indicative of a wider acceptance of features of BSAE beyond the originating members of the variety.
The study evaluates responses by L1 English and Afrikaans-speaking student teachers at a tertiary institution in Gauteng to a questionnaire based on a list of characteristic features of Black South African English (BSAE) adapted from De Klerk and Gough (2002:362). Students were required to indicate the statements they would mark as incorrect in formal, academic writing and to identify the single feature which they regarded as the most in need of remediation. The findings indicate (up to 26%) that students outside the racial category of 'black' are tolerant of certain entrenched features (extension of progressive, no singular or third person indicative present, phrases such as 'X's first time' and omission of the article) of BSAE. This suggests that the variety is gaining momentum as certain features are beginning to be tolerated even in formal, written, academic contexts at university level. If features are penetrating segments of the South African population outside of the originating culture it can be argued that there is some movement of the variety towards Schneider's Phase 4 of endonormative standardization of BSAE. However, other entrenched features of BSAE (the use of too and very much as intensifiers, the use of resumptive pronouns and gender conflation in pronouns) received a 0% AR. The pedagogic implications of this non-acceptance are discussed.
Discrepancies between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests : implications for teaching English in South AfricaAuthor A.S. Coetzee-Van RooySource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 45, pp 151 –181 (2011)More Less
Empirical data that indicate a discrepancy between perceptions and scores on English tests among South African participants (1998-2011) are reported. A discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests is important because of its potential impact on language learner motivation. It will be shown that inflated self-perceptions of English proficiency result in the discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English proficiency tests. Three explanations are offered for inflated perceptions of English proficiency. Firstly, it is argued that the multilingual identities of the respondents provide some understanding of inflated perceptions of English proficiency. Secondly, it is maintained that there are different conceptions of proficiency at work. Thirdly, resilience reported for African youth at a macro level is considered as contributing factor that results in inflated perceptions of English proficiency. The pedagogical implications of these explanations result in a proposed "multilingual awareness pedagogy" embedded in Dörnyei's (2009) L2 Motivational Self System theory.