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- Volume 48, Issue 2, 2014
Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig - Volume 48, Issue 2, 2014
Volume 48, Issue 2, 2014
Author Johann Van der WaltSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48 (2014)More Less
This edition of the journal (48/2 of 2014) focuses on the new curriculum for languages in the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS) and the Annual National Assessments (ANAs), that have become a prominent feature of the education landscape in South Africa. After the disastrous Outcomes-Based Education experiment, much is expected of CAPS as an improvement on OBE. It is anticipated that CAPS will result in improved standards in our schools. ANAs have also been under the spotlight, as their purpose and standard have been questioned. Standards and pass rates remain a major issue in public opinion, but can have very negative consequences when they encourage a "shallow" approach to teaching and learning in our schools. We hope that CAPS will address this issue, and result in "deep" learning, but it depends on how it is implemented in our schools.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 11 –35 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.1More Less
Making decisions about teaching and learning is as core a component to teaching as providing the teaching itself. Effective use of assessment data to plan, judge, and modify teaching is a fundamental competency for good teaching. According to the Department of Basic Education (2013b), the purpose of the ANA is to determine learner performance with regard to the skills and knowledge that they have acquired as a result of teaching and learning experiences in school. In addition, it provides important evidence to inform planning and development at national, provincial, district and school level. The purpose of this article is to report on the results of an exploratory action research study that indicate that the Annual National Assessment is overstepping its boundaries in terms of supporting the development of a systematic, dynamic and effective reading literacy assessment system to address the early literacy skills of foundation phase learners. ANA was not designed or standardised to be a screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring assessment.
Author Graham A. DampierSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 37 –51 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i1.2More Less
This article presents a critique of the way in which additional language teaching in the foundation phase has traditionally been conceptualised in South African education. I argue that the curriculum has no clearly defined theory of how language is acquired and that it relies on a concept (viz. additive bilingualism) that never makes the process explicit. Additive bilingualism is seen as the solution to the problem of English second language acquisition, and for most learners English becomes the language of teaching and learning in the intermediate phase. I argue that the pedagogic process of introducing the first additional language (FAL) has not been interrogated thoroughly at a theoretical level, which has profound consequences for the classroom. The curriculum's proposal of how to facilitate the acquisition of the FAL appears to fulfil economic and cultural ideals at the expense of educational parity and epistemic access. Meeting the constitutional ideals of maintaining diversity while integrating into the global market place will be more feasible if alternate models of bilingualism are considered.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 53 –79 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.3More Less
In hierdie artikel word die vraag gestel of leesbegripstoetse, wat volgens onderwysdepartementele voorskrifte opgestel is, werklik leesbegripsvlakke assesseer. Riglyne van die Nasionale Kurrikulum- en Assesseringsbeleidsverklaring (Suid-Afrika, 2011) is gebruik om twee gelyksoortige leesbegripstoetse (drie tekste elk), wat uit dieselfde tekstipes bestaan, maar handel oor verskillende temas, op te stel om Afrikaanssprekende graad 9-leerders, uit verskillende geografiese gebiede van 'n onderwysdistrik, se leesbegripsvlakke te bepaal. Die moeilikheidsgraad van die leestekste is met leesbaarheidsindekse bepaal en 'n 40-40-20%-verspreiding van kognitiewe vlakke is in die vraagstelling gevolg. Bo en behalwe die berekening van gemiddeldes, frekwensies en persentasies is die Cronbach Alphakoëffisiëntwaardes en die gemiddelde interitem-korrelasiewaardes vir elkeen van die drie tekste binne die twee tematies verskillende leesbegripstoetse vasgestel en leesbegripstoetse se vrae is volgens Bloom se kognitiewe vlakke vergelyk. Die hoofbevinding is dat leerders se leesbegripsvlakke nie akkuraat deur tipiese leesbegripstoetse geassesseer word nie, omdat hulle leesbegrippunte in 'n mindere of 'n meerdere mate op verskillende wyses gekontamineer word.
In this article the question is posed whether reading comprehension tests, compiled in accordance with department of education prescripts, actually assess reading comprehension levels. Guidelines of the National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (South Africa, 2011) were used to compile two equivalent reading comprehension tests (three texts each), consisting of the same text types, on different themes, in order to determine the reading comprehension levels of Afrikaans-speaking grade 9 learners from different geographical areas of an education district. The degree of difficulty of the reading texts was determined by means of readability indexes and a 40-40-20%-distribution of cognitive levels was followed in the question statements. In addition to the calculation of averages, frequencies and percentages, the Cronbach Alpha coefficient values and the average interitem correlation values for each of the three texts within the two thematically different reading comprehension tests were determined, and the questions of the reading comprehension tests were compared in accordance with Bloom's cognitive levels. The main finding is that readers' reading comprehension levels are not accurately assessed by typical reading comprehension tests, seeing that their reading comprehension marks are contamininated to a lesser or a greater extent in various ways.
Author Alta EngelbrechtSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 81 –103 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.4More Less
Die rol van die onderwysersgids binne verskillende Suid-Afrikaanse taal-kurrikula word in hierdie artikel ondersoek. Die konseptuele raamwerk waarvan in hierdie artikel uitgegaan word, is Pedagogiese Geletterdheid (Sale 2006) wat 'n empiriese raamwerk daarstel wat op eklektiese wyse elemente van verskillende leerteorieë effektief saam gebruik. Die navorsingsmetode is 'n inhoudsanalise van een KABV-onderwysersgids (Afrikaans Huistaal) om vas te stel hoe die kernbeginsels van goeie onderrigpraktyk in die onderwysersgids manifesteer, al dan nie. Die studie bevind dat, ten spyte van 'n voorskriftelike kurrikulum, die onderwyser wel weens die bemiddeling van die onderwysersgids op eklektiese wyse sy/haar eie stem kan vind (en tog aan die kurrikulumvereistes voldoen). 'n Leerdergerigte, sukses-georiënteerde inslag is deurgaans teenwoordig terwyl die organisatoriese en administratiewe strukture in die onderwysersgids die druk op die onderwyser verlig en hom/haar in staat stel om te kan konsentreer op kommunikatiewe onderrig in die klaskamer.
The role of the teacher's guide within different South African curricula is investigated in this article. The conceptual framework for this article is Pedagogic Literacy (Sale 2006) through which an empirical framework is developed that effectively combines different elements of a number of learning theories. Research aims to trace ways in which teachers in the textbook-driven CAPS-curriculum are supported by a teacher's guide. The research implements a content analysis of one of the CAPS teacher guides (Afrikaans home language) to determine whether the core aspects of good teaching are evident in the sample. The findings suggest that, in spite of the prescriptive curriculum, teachers are supported through the agency of the teacher's guide to find their own voice (and yet abide to curriculum requirements). A learner and success orientated approach was evident whilst the organisational and administrative structures in the teacher's guide also enable teachers to focus on communicative teaching and learning in the class room.
Ses van die een en 'n halfdosyn van die ander?
'n Ondersoek na moontlike vlakke van oorvleueling tussen matriek-Afrikaans en -Engels en die NWU se Akademiese Geletterdheidstoets en -kursusseSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 105 –125 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.5More Less
Die sentrum vir Akademiese en Professionele Taalpraktyk en die universiteitsbestuur van die Noordwes-Universiteit se Potchefstroomkampus ontvang gereeld navrae van studente en ouers oor die verpligte module Akademiese Geletterdheid (AGLA121) wat deur sommige leerders en ouers as 'n duplisering van matriek Huistaal beskou word. Daar word aangevoer dat dié kursus 'n negatiewe impak het op leerders se reeds beperkte studietyd. Daarom word die versoek dikwels gerig dat leerders wat A's of B's vir Afrikaans of Engels Huistaal in matriek gekry het, van die verpligte Toets van Akademiese Geletterdheidsvlakke (TAG), of die Engelse ekwivalent daarvan: die Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL), en AGLA121 vrygestel behoort te word. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om te bepaal of bogenoemde persepsie op feite gebaseer is en of die Noordwes-Universiteit (NWU) se Akademiese Geletterdheidskursus inderdaad slegs 'n taalkursus is wat oorvleuel met dit wat reeds op skool onderrig is. Die artikel is hoofsaaklik konseptueel van aard. 'n Ontleding word gemaak van die Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) Graad 10-12, die konstruk van TAG wat akademiese geletterdheidsvlakke toets en die AGLA121-kursusinhoud om te bepaal in welke mate die inhoude van die matriek Huistaalsillabus ooreenstem met die konstruk van TAG en die kursusinhoude van AGLA121. Uit die studie behoort dit duidelik te wees of daar grootskaalse oorvleueling tussen CAPS aan die een kant en TAG en die AGLA121-module aan die ander kant is en of 'n module in Akademiese Geletterdheid noodsaaklik is vir alle leerders op eerstejaarsvlak, omdat dit fokus op aspekte wat nie deur die skoolsillabus gedek word nie.
The Centre for Academic and Professional Language Practice (CAPLP) and the university management of the North-West University (NWU) often receive enquiries from students and parents regarding the compulsory module in Academic Literacy (AGLA121), which is regarded by some learners and parents as a duplication of matric Home Language. The claim is then made that this module impacts negatively on learners' limited study time. For this reason many students and parents request that learners who have acquired an A or a B for their matric Home Language, should be exempted from the compulsory Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL), and its Afrikaans counterpart: Toets van Akademiese Geletterdheidsvlakke, as well as AGLA121. The purpose of this article is to determine whether these assumptions are based on facts and whether the NWU Academic Literacy course is indeed a language course duplicating what has been taught at school. This article is primarily conceptual in nature. An analysis is made of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) Grades 10-12, the construct of TAG, and the AGLA121 course content to determine to which extent the content of the matric Home Language syllabus matches the construct of TAG and the AGLA121 content. Based on the study there could be an indication of possible duplication between CAPS on the one side, and TAG and AGLA121 on the other side and whether a module in academic literacy is essential for all learners in the first year of study, because it focuses on aspects that are not covered by the school syllabus.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 127 –147 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.6More Less
The newly introduced Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) contains a plethora of genres and writing tasks, aimed at helping learners develop dexterity in written communication. Accordingly, writing also features as a dominant construct in the Grade 12 school-leaving examination, with an entire language paper (Paper 3) being devoted to the assessment of this ability. There are a number of material concerns with the writing component of the national curriculum, particularly in relation to the testing of this ability in a timed examination setting. The kinds of examination tasks do not provide a valid or reliable basis for measuring proficiency in written communication. Moreover, the separation of skills reflected in both the curriculum and Grade 12 language papers may serve to inhibit rather than advance writing proficiency. This paper problematises the nature of the writing tasks, on the basis of the accepted principles of validity, reliability and fairness in language testing. Data gleaned from an analysis of Home Language papers reveal a disturbing lack of comparability of standard, as well as the prejudicial treatment of some learners. A more responsible approach to the measurement of writing ability is advocated.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 149 –177 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.7More Less
Although ANAs show language-conditioned problems in reading comprehension and decoding ability, most South African research focuses disproportionately on (a) English and Afrikaans and (b) macro approaches to literacy rather than formal and psycholinguistic analyses of reading. Obviously African languages are structurally and typologically different to English and Afrikaans; reading strategies required for the mechanics of reading are necessarily different and should be supported by language-specific pedagogies. We argue for research programmes that situate reading pedagogy within the language-specific spaces defined by Linguistic approaches to understanding (a) orthography, (b) cognitive reading skills and models and (c) indigenous, language-specific norms and resources.
Author Caroline Van der MeschtSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 179 –191 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.8More Less
The Foundation Phase Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (2010) recommends Paired Reading for teaching reading literacy in both Home Language and Additional Language classrooms. This article describes research on the reading histories of teachers enrolled in an in-service Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.) programme. Nearly one third of these teachers learned to read from other children in poor rural villages before going on to become successful readers and students. This finding challenges the notion of literacy learning in which adults are the main role models. In this article I argue firstly that play based learning is neglected in the curriculum. Secondly, I suggest that peer tutoring provides an opportunity to use child led play to encourage children to practise reading and writing at school and home, relying on play structures already known to them. I suggest therefor that play should be recommended more strongly in Foundation Phase classrooms than the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement presently advises.
Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading skills and their readiness to implement CAPSSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 199 –215 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.9More Less
This study explored what three Intermediate Phase English First Additional Language teachers understood about reading and teaching reading, and the strategies they used to develop learners' reading skills. Data gathered through interviews and observations of classroom practice were used to consider the extent of their readiness to achieve the aims implicit in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). It was found that these educators understand reading primarily as the oral performance of decoding text to speech, and view comprehension as a separate and restricted entity; also, limitations in their understanding of comprehension processes involved in reading impeded their readiness to implement CAPS. Shortcomings in educators' schooling experiences, training and professional development were considered with a view to informing future teacher training and workshops. This study formed part of a university led research project which investigated well-documented indications of poor development of literacy skills in South African schools.
Author Michele F. Van der MerweSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 217 –231 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v48i2.10More Less
A general curriculum for languages in South Africa has been developed, with the result that a common approach to grammar teaching is supposedly followed in all schools. An analysis of the curriculum for Afrikaans home language shows that the importance of grammar teaching has shrunk considerably. No official class time is allocated that could be devoted to grammar teaching. Teaching grammar has always been a central and problematic issue for language teachers. "To teach or not to teach grammar" remains the question, along with how much to teach and when to do it. According to the language curriculum, the most desirable teaching approach to follow is a communicative one. A literature study on the communicative approach, with a focus on grammar teaching, is undertaken. The task-based approach, which has been developed from the communicative approach, and ways to implement it are practically explored in the article.
Author Anne BakerSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 48, pp 233 –235 (2014)More Less
The fourth edition of Practical Guide to Facilitating Language Learning by Marguerite Wessels, published by Oxford University Press Southern Africa (2014), is exactly what the title promises: it is very practical.
It is aimed at students in BEd courses and other teacher training diploma students as well as in-service teachers and is written in clear, precise and understandable language with explanations of specific terminology on the page where the terms occur for the first time. Even in the more theoretical sections that are underpinned by appropriate language teaching and learning theories, the practical focus is never lost. Each chapter is preceded by the learning outcome envisaged for that chapter, so that the reader knows what benefit to expect.