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- Volume 49, Issue 1, 2015
Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig - Volume 49, Issue 1, 2015
Volume 49, Issue 1, 2015
Lees- en spellingagterstande van leerders met serebrale gestremdhede : interaksie van werkgeheue, fonologiese prosessering en visueel-ruimtelike aspekte tot leerSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 11 –31 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.1More Less
The causes and characteristics of the reading and spelling deficits of learners with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the working memory processing are discussed. Due to the vision, hearing and speech disabilities of these learners, the phonological loop in the working memory receives and rejects an unclear message, because the sub-vocal repetition store in the phonological loop does not know how to process it. Thus the phonological loop is interrupted and these learners cannot develop the phonological awareness needed for reading and spelling skills. Therefore, traditional teaching strategies are of no value to teach these learners. However, the plight of these children is that many teachers in South Africa are not trained to support this language-processing problem in these learners. Possible intervention strategies for supporting the phonological loop of CP learners are discussed. Visual imagery and the Davis strategies have been identified as suitable intervention strategies for supporting the reading and spelling deficits of learners with CP. The value of this theoretical paper is that it could provide teachers who have no training to support the language-based problems of children with CP early in their lives with some information about intervention strategies.
Enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in disadvantaged contexts : re-imagining the teacher's roleAuthor Blandina MakinaSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 33 –51 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.2More Less
Until recently, focus in South African schools has been on changing curricula, and in particular introducing learner-centred approaches as well as training practising teachers through in-service programmes. However, concern is now shifting to the ineffectiveness of the training programmes in equipping teachers to teach effectively, particularly in disadvantaged contexts. These contexts will continue to exist hence the need to empower teachers to effectively navigate contextual constraints and improve the quality of education. This paper explores the extent to which teachers working in deprived contexts seek to improve the quality of learning and teaching by re-imagining their roles. The unit of analysis is a group of ten teachers of English First Additional Language a year after they completed an in-service course, Subject Didactics English, run by the University of South Africa. Findings reveal that for numerous reasons, teachers are too overwhelmed by contextual challenges to seek creative ways to overcome disadvantage.
Lessons from small-scale standardised testing of English reading and writing performance in two types of primary schools in South AfricaSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 53 –79 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.3More Less
The multilingual composition of South African schools and the choice of English as the preferred language of teaching and learning (LoLT) have created well-documented academic challenges for English second language learners (ESL) and their teachers. Poor performance in English is associated with poor performance among ESL learners across the curriculum. Small-scale standardised testing for ESL performance is an assessment strategy that can contribute to identifying specific needs at a particular school. Standardised testing, as a sub-component of the broader concept of assessment which includes a range of assessment options, is defined as any form of test that requires all test takers to answer the same questions in the same way. This paper reports on a study which implemented small-scale, standardised testing of English reading and writing performance of ESL Grade 7 learners in two types of primary schools in a semi-rural area in Limpopo Province (a public fee-paying school and an independent for-profit school). The overall findings indicate that learners in both schools performed extremely well in the English writing performance test; however, learners in the public school outperformed learners in the independent school in both English Reading and Writing performance tests, although the difference in the Writing performance test was minimal. The superior performance by the public school can partly be explained by teachers teaching experience, most of them have been teaching for more than ten years and greater community support for the school. It is recommended that data produced through small-scale standardised testing should be used by school management teams to design instructional improvement plans and by individual teachers to make data-driven decisions about improved language instruction.
Changing student teachers' views of comprehension instruction through the use of a comprehension instruction frameworkAuthor Nanda M. KlapwijkSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 81 –103 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.4More Less
Literacy statistics show that South African learners' comprehension ability is generally poor and in some cases seems to be getting poorer. At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem to include a lack of proper teacher training in comprehension instruction, teachers remaining unconvinced about the value of strategy instruction, and concerns that strategy instruction is time consuming and difficult to learn and teach. This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction. The course formed part of a teacher training module and centered on a reading strategy instruction framework designed to enhance comprehension instruction across all subjects in an easy-to-use manner. The article shows that strategy instruction can be taken up successfully in a relatively short time period, and that most existing concerns about strategy instruction can be addressed through in-depth training.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in Botswana : perceptions of implementation by some teachers in Botswana's Junior Secondary SchoolsSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 105 –139 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.5More Less
This paper reports on the first phase of a research project that focused on understanding the perceptions of teachers regarding the implementation of CLT in the English Second Language (ESL) classrooms in Botswana's Junior Secondary Schools (JSSs). CLT has been the dominant English language teaching paradigm in Botswana for fifteen years. Educators and commentators often refer to an inadequate mastery of English at tertiary institutions and in the workplace, indicating a potential disenchantment with the implementation of CLT in English in Botswana. The data reported in this article come from a questionnaire survey conducted among JSSs English teachers located in Botswana's urban areas (n=135). The data indicate a conflicted view of CLT among the participants. On the one hand they believe that they have been trained well to implement CLT and their responses to some questions indicate that they have some knowledge about CLT. On the other hand, responses to some questions indicate a lack of knowledge of CLT and that the participating teachers believe that CLT does not necessarily lead to improved English proficiency among their learners. The data seem to point to a certain disjunction between perceptions, theoretical knowledge and views of the usefulness of CLT for English in Botswana. Future studies should consider to compare these views with actual classroom observations.
Working in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in the English classroom : a case study on the teaching of literatureSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 141 –159 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.6More Less
This paper details an innovative approach to the teaching of literature (fiction) in a Grade 10 convent classroom. This was embedded within a module on English teaching which took six months of the school year. It, however, took the teaching in a deeper way than envisaged in the curriculum, using as it does a theory of school learning within "The Cultural Historical Activity Theory". The concepts used include "mediation", "the zone of proximal development," "the double move", and "the social situation of development". The outcome of this teaching experiment was a high level of learner competence in working with South African fiction.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 161 –197 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.7More Less
This study attempted to measure the effect of using a suggested training programme based on the most influential Milton model hypnotic language patterns on EFL student-teachers' motivational language. The study used a pre-test/post-test experimental and control group design. An experimental group and a control group were exposed to pre-post means of getting data (a pre-post motivational language test and a pre-post observation sheet). Thirty EFL student-teachers participated in this study. Results revealed a significant improvement in the motivational language of the experimental group students and in their teaching behaviour aimed at using motivational language. Based on these findings, it was recommended that direct and explicit teaching of motivational language by using influential hypnotic language patterns should be integrated into EFL pre-service teacher training curricula.
Textese and secondary school learners' formal written English : is the media hype about language decay justified?Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 199 –221 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.8More Less
This article investigates whether the media hype about the supposedly detrimental effect of textese on teenagers' formal English skills is justified. It is posited that this younger generation has reached the 'point of saturation' because they are so accustomed to seeing textisms in informal writing contexts and will therefore struggle to identify them in a formal writing context. A postpositivist research philosophy was assumed coupled with a quantitative research design. A purposefully designed proofreading protocol allowed for the collection of empirical data from South African secondary school learners with English first-language proficiency from the upper-middle class socio-economic sphere in the Pretoria metropolis. The results indicate that the 288 respondents did not struggle to identify textisms implying that the target population had a sufficiently precise grasp of register to discredit media claims that textese is akin to language decay.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 223 –253 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.9More Less
The present research explores the challenges of testing deep word knowledge of the vocabulary of students of English as a Foreign/Second Language (EFL/ESL) at higher education. A productive test modelled on the Lex30 test developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick (2000) was presented to the participants. Results indicate that (i) ESL students outperform their EFL counterparts of comparable class level, (ii) aspects of deep word knowledge among both higher education EFL and ESL students develop in the order of analytic relations, paradigmatic relations, and collocations; and (iii) aspects of deep word knowledge among both higher education EFL and ESL students grow alongside one another and correlate significantly with overall deep word knowledge; the strength of which may reflect the extent to which they contribute to it. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that Lex30 may constitute a good measure of deep word knowledge at the productive level, which is the path we suggest should be followed in order to test deep word knowledge of vocabulary at higher education. Furthermore, teaching implications aimed to foster deep word knowledge growth are discussed.
Die onderrig van argumentvaardighede in 'n akademiese skryfkursus vir eerstejaars : 'n beste praktyk-beskrywingAuthor Marlies TaljardSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 255 –279 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.10More Less
Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n praktykgebaseerde onderrigmodel aan die hand te doen vir die doeltreffende lees en skryf van akademiese tekste binne die beperkinge wat baie universiteitsroosters stel. In die beskrywing van 'n onderrigmetode wat in die praktyk goeie resultate met die skryf van argumentatiewe tekste deur eerstejaarstudente opgelewer het, word hoofsaaklik van praktyk-geleide navorsing ondersteun deur praktykgebaseerde navorsing en refleksiewe praktyk as navorsingsmetode gebruik gemaak. Die onderrigstrategie wat in hierdie artikel as beste praktyk uiteengesit word, is daarop gemik om eerstejaarstudente bewus te maak van bepaalde generiese akademiese skryfkonvensies wat hulle in hulle eie skryfwerk kan toepas. Verder lei dit studente om sinvolle en doeltreffende strategieë te ontwikkel om vakkundige tekste te lees en te beoordeel én om self logiese argumente te beplan en te skryf.
Die gebruik van die metadiskoerskategorie "bewyse" as voorvereiste vir suksesvolle argumentatiewe skryfwerk op tersiêre vlakSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 281 –305 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.11More Less
Hierdie artikel werp lig op die gebruik van Hyland (2004:139) se metadiskoerskategorie "bewyse" in eerstejaar-universiteitstudente se akademiese, argumentatiewe skryfwerk. 'n Kwasi-eksperimentele navorsingsontwerp is gebruik ten einde kwantitatiewe data in te samel rakende die invloed wat 'n intervensie sal hê op die deelnemers se gebruik van en verwysing na bronne volgens die Noordwes-Universiteit se amptelike verwysingstyl. Ten einde eties om te gaan met akademiese bronne, is dit belangrik dat studente reeds vroeg in hulle universiteitsloopbaan bewus gemaak behoort te word van die erkenning van bronne wat in tekste geraadpleeg word. 'n Handontleding en vergelyking van twee korpora, bestaande uit 109 tekste elk (woordtotale van onderskeidelik 54 586 en 56 151), is gedoen. Daar is bevind dat, ten spyte van die beperkte hoeveelheid tyd wat aan die onderrig van die metadiskoerskategorie "bewyse" afgestaan is, dit wel 'n positiewe invloed het op die erkenning van bronne en die korrekte verwysing daarna volgens die Harvardstyl.
Author Henk LouwSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 307 –331 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.12More Less
This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well-considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten comments. Additional benefits made possible by the technique make a strong case for the use of such a technique in the marking of student texts. The marks assigned to the student texts also make a strong case for focusing on these specific textual features.
Source: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 333 –351 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.13More Less
The number of students admitted by universities in South Africa has grown tremendously in the past two to three decades. Most of these students, however, graduate from high school without having gained the academic literacy ability required for success at university. A result of this has been that the students struggle to handle the demands of university education in English, the medium of instruction at these institutions. This causes them to fail to complete their studies in the scheduled time and even to drop out. South African universities have responded to this challenge by introducing academic literacy programmes to help the students bridge the language gap between high school and university. These universities spend large sums of money on academic literacy development requirements such as teachers, learning materials and general administration. It is important therefore that the academic literacy courses offered by such universities are effectively designed and taught. The Central University of Technology (CUT) introduced its first academic language programme in 2007. To date, three academic language courses have been offered under the auspices of this programme. The first of these courses was borrowed from another university and was taught at CUT until the end of 2009. The second one was developed by the academic language development staff inside CUT and was introduced at the beginning of 2010. The whole of 2013 was spent on designing and developing yet another academic language course inside the university, which was introduced in January 2014. This paper is a case study of the curriculum renewal process that went into this project.
Case study of a Global Simulation in French as a Foreign Language with beginner level learners at the University of Namibia : a search for an authentic language and culture exposure in an African Anglophone countryAuthor Aurelie ZannierSource: Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 49, pp 353 –381 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v49i1.13More Less
In a communicative based approach, the French Foreign Language learning-teaching activities offered in classrooms favour exposing learners to authentic communicative situations that are relevant in a French or Francophone "genuine" context. This quest for "reality" or "authenticity" might be challenging in some linguistic environments such as African Anglophone countries where learners do not benefit from many opportunities to practice the foreign language and/or to get accustomed to its culture beyond the classroom. From this perspective, roleplays proved to positively provide learners with efficient communication skills that closely resembled "real" communication contexts. This paper aims at defining the Global Simulation (GS) process and its technicalities. The paper also aims at describing the adaptation from Debyser's Global Simulation guide, L'Immeuble, to the context of the study: second year level students at the University of Namibia. The impact of applying GS on learners' needs and expectations will be analysed.