Latin American Report - Volume 18, Issue 1, 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1, 2002
Source: Latin American Report 18 (2002)More Less
The underlying theme of this edition of Unisa Latin American Report is development. Explicitly or implicitly this runs through all the research articles. The role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in achieving and sustaining socio-economic development is widely recognized. But SMEs cannot achieve this without a strong and coherent support system provided by the state, as is argued in the first research article, which extrapolates from the Latin American experience to the situation in South Africa.
The role of the small and medium enterprise sector in Latin America : implications for South Africa : research articleAuthor Albert BerrySource: Latin American Report 18, pp 4 –15 (2002)More Less
The current economic setting in most Latin American countries suggests that if the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector does not perform well during the next couple of decades, overall economic performance will also be unsatisfactory, especially in the areas of employment creation and income distribution. No other major sector has the potential to generate a large amount of adequate-income jobs. Experience of other countries has proven that this sector can play a central contributing role under proper conditions and with adequate support. Various types of evidence from the countries of the region suggest that considerable potential is present in their SME sectors. But both experience gained elsewhere and economic logic imply that a strong and coherent support system will be necessary if that potential is to be reasonably fully reaped. Such a system has been notoriously absent in most Latin American countries in the past. Countries which fail to rectify this lack may suffer serious social and economic consequences. The marked parallels between the economy of South Africa and those of many Latin American countries, both in economic structure, recent growth performance and level of inequality, suggest that many of the conclusions applicable to Latin America are likely to be relevant to South Africa as well.
Author Marcia LockettSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 16 –23 (2002)More Less
The article discusses the fundamental cyclical relationship between technology and culture and suggests that it is only possible to understand what is involved in modernization if that concept is related to traditional cultures. History teaches us that possessing advanced science and technology confers political power and a dynamic economy on the possessor. Obviously, science and technology are at the root of the inequality that exists between advanced and developing nations, but an approach based on the notion that science and technology are neutral ignores reality. Endogenous technology that is, technology that is produced from within and by a culture should be assigned the important role it deserves. Traditional cultures also need to bring themselves into accord with the empirical-objective methods of modern science and technology. Development should be literally centred in the human being, and culture is the social matrix.
Land tenure regularization in Latin America : a critical assessment of de Soto's The mystery of capital : research articleAuthor Edesio FernandesSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 24 –29 (2002)More Less
This article discusses critically the main assumptions of Hernando de Soto's internationally influential book <i>The mystery of capital</i> namely that access to services, credit and finance by people living in informal settlements can only be obtained if their security of tenure is recognized, which in its turn is to be attained through the distribution of individual freehold titles. The author, drawing from the findings of several research projects in Latin America as well as on his own work, argues that, while perceived or actual security of tenure depends on a broad set of politico-institutional and socio-economic factors, there is a diversity of legal options other than traditional individual freehold titles which should be considered by policy makers in charge of formulating urban land regularization programmes, especially in that they may be more effective for the long-claimed promotion of sociospatial integration of informal areas and their dwellers.
Black youth and education : a brief sketch and description of experiments towards strengthening self-esteem : research articleAuthor Rachel De OliveiraSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 30 –35 (2002)More Less
The author surveys educational programmes for black youth, as developed by the Brazilian Black Social Movement. Since 1982 these programmes have state support, in recognition that social mobility and schooling go hand in hand. The article gives a comprehensive view of the history of conditions of access to education given to young blacks in Brazil. Furthermore, it describes a number of programmes carried out by the Palmares Foundation at the Ministry of Culture, aimed at integrating the black youth into the country's development process while at the same time presenting Afro-Brazilian cultural values.
Address at the opening of the general debate of the 56th session of the General Assembly of the United NationsAuthor Fernando Henrique CardosoSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 36 –39 (2002)More Less
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) for a fraternal community : news and informationAuthor Jose Flavio Sombra SaraivaSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 40 –44 (2002)More Less
Even though it may seem obvious, the fraternal dimension of a community of countries that have the Portuguese language as their common bond needs to be emphasized when faced with the threats of cultural models that seek global hegemony in the wake of globalization. Although the public in general is unaware of it, there is a legally established nascent community that has the aim of fostering closer relations among the seven countries on three continents that have Portuguese as their official language. Even though some have viewed it with disdain, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) could become a productive initiative for promoting diplomatic, cultural and social harmonization of those peoples and nations that embrace the new era of globalization through their common cultural heritage of the Portuguese language.
Leadership, consensus, and technology - with broad support from society, Brazil is improving the quality of life of HIV carriers : IDB newsSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 45 –46 (2002)More Less
AIDS patients in Brazil who visit any of the 111 antiviral treatment centers throughout the country come armed with a bar-coded card that immediately grants them access to their health care account. In addition to establishing their identity, the card provides access to records of diagnosis, current treatment, last doses of medication, specific complications, dates of recent visits, and the person's medical history.
The fruits of foresight - an architect of Brazil's AIDS program describes the 'critical and innovative vision' that led to success : IDB newsSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 47 –48 (2002)More Less
Countries that deal with AIDS belatedly or half-heartedly pay a price - both in lost lives and added health care and social costs. Brazil avoided a large-scale AIDS epidemic by adopting visionary policies and making bold investments early on. Brazil's approach is now generating a global reassessment of the prospects for managing AIDS in developing countries.
Dangerous prescription - a new study indicates that corruption has infected Latin America's public hospitals : IDB newsAuthor Paul ConstanceSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 49 –51 (2002)More Less
Can corruption be harmful to your health? Consider the following scenario. A woman arrives at the emergency room of a large public hospital complaining of acute abdominal pain. She spends four hours in the waiting room because two of the physicians who are supposed to be on duty are actually working at private clinics. By the time she is finally examined, her condition has become life threatening and requires a potent antibiotic and several specialized tests. The hospital's pharmacy records indicate that the antibiotic is in stock, but the doctor in charge is told that supplies have inexplicably disappeared. The woman's relatives are informed that they must pay a special fee to obtain the medication from another source. They are also told that the diagnostic tests she requires can only be performed at a private hospital in another part of town.
Unisa receives accreditation from American Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) : UCLAS reportAuthor Doreen GoughSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 52 –53 (2002)More Less
On 12 January 2002 the University of South Africa (Unisa) was accredited by the Accrediting Commission of the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) in the United States of America (US). The accreditation means that a prestigious international accrediting Commission has concluded that Unisa is a quality distance education institution that sets attainable educational outcomes for its academic programmes, provides materials and services to enable students to reach those objectives and has the capacity to continue to provide these services in future.
Author Trevor ReynoldsSource: Latin American Report 18, pp 54 –56 (2002)More Less
The South African National Defence (SANDF) College presents the Executive National Security Programme (ENSP) and aims at offering members the opportunity to become familiar with National Security interests and strategy formulation. Some of the programme members of ENSP 04/01 were recently given the opportunity to visit Brazil, in order to become familiar with that country.