Latin American Report - Volume 19, Issue 1, 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1, 2003
Source: Latin American Report 19 (2003)More Less
High-level international relations is the main focus of this issue of Unisa Latin American Report. We are fortunate in that three of the four research articles are by four contributors who are practising diplomats as well as scholars in international relations. All three deal with relations between South Africa and one or more Latin American and Caribbean countries. Between them, these articles illustrate the importance and value of relations between South Africa and its developing neighbours to the West.
Brazil - South Africa relations : four decades towards the affirmation of a democratic partnership : research articleSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 4 –21 (2003)More Less
This article examines Brazilian diplomacy towards South Africa from 1948 to 1990. It focuses on various landmarks in Brazilian foreign policy towards Africa in general and South Africa in particular. Post-1945 Brazil saw the need to establish itself on the African continent in order to foster its commercial interests and thus its national development. But from 1961 Brazil faced the problem of simultaneously establishing good relations with newly independent black Africa and maintaining good relations with its (by far) biggest market in Africa - apartheid South Africa. This article describes how Brazil achieved this in the face of a changing international situation and domestic disagreements over policy, especially after the return of democracy to Brazil in 1985. This tension in Brazil's Africa policy ended with the then South African President F W de Klerk's reforms of 1990, which ended apartheid, allowing normalisation of relations.
Political actors in the New Caribbean regionalism and the limits of liberal intergovernmentalism : research articleAuthor Jose Briceno-RuizSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 22 –30 (2003)More Less
The Caribbean Basin is experiencing a new wave of economic regionalism since the beginning of the 1990s. Which are the actors that have promoted the emergence of such a regionalism? After a brief account of the theories of political integration, the liberal intergovermentalist approach developed by Andrew Moravcsik (1994) is used to explore this question. As applied to an explanation of the development of the European Union, Moravcsik argues that integration is the result of the interaction of nation states and economic actors. They are the key players in the process of forming national preferences in which integration policy is designed. It is argued that Moravcsik's ideas could help to understand the new regionalism in the Caribbean Basin. This notwithstanding, the narrow definition of non-state actors proposed by Moravcsik is criticised. By limiting the analysis to the action of business associations, Moravcsik does not consider the increasing participation of civil society in the process of regional integration. The recent evolution of regionalism in the Caribbean confirms this deficiency of liberal intergovernmentalism.
Author Tom WheelerSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 31 –41 (2003)More Less
South Africa and the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean have many existing and potential areas of co-operation. Besides geographic location in the southern, developing section of the globe, there is a like-mindedness on global, social and economic issues, which is based on parallels in our histories and the developmental problems that beset us. <br>The recent history of democratisation in South Africa and in the Western Hemisphere provides the platform for greater co-operation where previously differences of language, colonial heritage, legal system and lack of familiarity have kept us apart. <br>The recognition that the African Diaspora in the Caribbean and Latin America has a role to play in achieving the African Renaissance, and the applicability of South African mining and engineering technology in exploiting the mineral wealth of the region, are but two examples of the opportunities for developing closer relations with our western neighbours across the South Atlantic. <br>The political will is increasing and it is for all role-players to exploit the opportunities and the existing goodwill.
Author Pieter SwanepoelSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 42 –45 (2003)More Less
This article deals with the growing relations between South Africa and Mexico, since the establishment of formal diplomatic relations on 27 October 1993. Mexico is an important regional and international player with which South Africa needs to broaden bilateral, as well as multilateral, relations despite its non-affiliation to structures commonly identified with the interests of the South.
Author Carlos E. AragonSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 46 –49 (2003)More Less
Since 1987, after publication of the United Nations (UN) Commission for the Environment and Development, the term sustainable development has been broadly employed and incorporated in visions of the world's future. Despite the many efforts to put this vision into practice and although its use represents one of the most significant contributions to the debate on the environment, its acceptance as a guide for necessary changes on a global scale will require great effort. With the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Conference on the Environment, it was possible to establish general principles for attaining sustainable development; with a few months remaining until the Johannesburg Conference, however, this goal continues to be a great challenge.
Author Everton Vieira VargasSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 50 –52 (2003)More Less
Ten years after the historical Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the period between 1992 and 2002 may legitimately be remembered by those involved in issues pertaining to development as 'the decade of Agenda 21'. Few not legally mandated multilateral documents had Agenda 21's impact on formulating government policies and attitudes. This is undoubtedly due to the scope of the subject matter covered by the document and the innovative focus of its recommendations.
Author Tereza CunhaSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 72 –74 (2003)More Less
Hidden histories of gender and the state in Latin America, Elizabeth Dore and Maxine Molyneux (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Virginia W. LeonardSource: Latin American Report 19, pp 75 –76 (2003)More Less
This book is in response to Joan Scott's call to examine politics and gender. It grew out of a 1996 conference held at the University of London, and is based on 12 case studies of 'gender relations' in Latin America. This conference was organised by the co-editors Elizabeth Dore, Professor of Latin American History at the University of Portsmouth, England, and Maxine Molyneux, Professor of Sociology at the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, England. Molyneux is also the Senior External Adviser of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development project on Gender Justice, Development and Rights.