Latin American Report - Volume 26, Issue 1, 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1, 2010
Source: Latin American Report 26, pp 2 –3 (2010)More Less
This special issue is on 'Media Representation of Class, Ethnicity, Gender and Sexuality' in the 'Third World'. While this issue does not claim to be comprehensive, it does however add on to diverse and vibrant literature that has been written in text-books, academic journals and newspapers on media representation of class, ethnicity, gender and sexuality.
Source: Latin American Report 26, pp 4 –13 (2010)More Less
The advent of colonialism had far reaching implications in Africa. Western cultural imperialism was, and still is, implemented, inter alia, by the church and its missionary acolytes. Missionaries instilled Eurocentric value systems that were deemed vital for the successful execution of colonization. This paper will show that the literary tradition that emerged in Africa was not only intimately linked to Christianity, mission-controlled schools and the presses, but has been circumscribed by the socio-economic and political realities of colonialism. As shall be seen, Africans did not regard Christianity as part of the colonization agenda. Missionaries linked Christian mystical life with literacy hence this investigation examines whether the mythicized African fiction is devoid of any realism at all.
Memory, myths and problems of objectivity in the documentary film entitled Keepers of Memory Regarding the Rwandan GenocideAuthor Katy KhanSource: Latin American Report 26, pp 14 –20 (2010)More Less
The Rwandan genocide is a theme that has excited not only film-makers in Africa but also non-Africans in Europe. The documentary film has been important in writing narratives of remembrance, invoking 're-memory' and creating social awareness. In reconstructing the memories of the genocide, documentaries have attempted to maintain a certain objectivity regarding the victims and aggressors in the genocide in order to draw moral conclusions about them. The aim of this article is to problematise the idea of memory and objectivity in the documentary film entitled Keepers of Memory (2004). The objective is to question the narrative techniques that the film uses to subject the watchers to a notoriously singleminded perspective of the genocide. It will be argued that the documentary's impulse towards authentic facts has a memorialising effect that can mythicize the actual conflicts that defined the genocide. This effect is most visible in the style employed in the documentary of selecting certain sites, images, sound and colour to produce a sense of affect that can be used to silence alternative depictions of the same genocide. However, audiences or subjects have their own subjectivities which incline them to decode film meanings differently. This article will therefore show how some of the narrative techniques encourage us to view stereotypes as a potential space of suture, a liminal space in transition, and a zone of occult instability, which are resistant to fixed forms of representations depicted in a genre of documentary film produced on genocide.
Author Washington MushoreSource: Latin American Report 26, pp 21 –29 (2010)More Less
The aim of this article is to demonstrate that issues of gender equality are not easily taking root in Zimbabwean society owing to extensive use of patriarchy language. Patriarchy language is referred in this article as that vocabulary which is used in sustaining male dominance over women economically, socially and politically. Thus, patriarchy language helps in ensuring continued position of superiority of men over women. This language is mostly used by men. However, in some instances, women use patriarchy language unconsciously. Patriarchy vocabulary usually portrays women as 'prostitutes', 'loose', 'dangerous' and 'carriers or transmitters' of HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwean society. The ultimate argument of this article is that the use of patriarchy language is ideological. It is male resistance of the fact that when it comes to issues of HIV/AIDS both male and female are potential 'players'. Through this language, men portray themselves as not 'sources' of the pandemic, but as 'victims' of female 'immoral' behaviour. In-order to illustrate how patriarchal language is used by male artists to resist the notion that they are potential partners in the transmission of the pandemic, examples will be drawn from poetry, popular songs and advertisements produced in Zimbabwe.
Author Urther RwafaSource: Latin American Report 26, pp 30 –43 (2010)More Less
The genre of the short film is not deficient as most Zimbabwean critics tend to think. The short film is complete in its shortness. Its complexity is that it can simultanously resist forms of politically motivated forms of censorship as well as unwittingly restrict, constrict or even prohibit lengthy exploration of alternative narratives in life. In this article, I explore this paradoxical nature of two Zimbabwean short films paying attention to (1) fragmented nature of short film, (2) economics of production of the short film, (3) language[s] of re/presentation in the short film, (4) and critical views of audiences of the short film. To uncover the buried narratives of censorship or prohibition in the short film genre, the films Asylum (2007), and Akakodzera Ndiani? (2008) are analysed. It is argued that the short film is a relatively new genre in Zimbabwe. It is emerging from the socio-political and economic crises of the 1990s. This context of production and circulation has, in many ways, led the Zimbabwean short film to evolve its own peculiar language conventions that can either aid or censor the audiences in understanding the issues being screened.
Author Ruby MagosvongweSource: Latin American Report 26, pp 44 –51 (2010)More Less
The critique acknowledges the magnificent effort of the University of Zimbabwe affiliated academics in putting together Becoming Zimbabwe. It then moves on to give a linguistic appraisal of the title, the picture on the front cover and the blurb as a preamble to a brief appreciation of the last chapter 'The crisis in Zimbabwe, 1998-2008'. The article argues that whilst it is within the democratic rights of all Zimbabweans to vociferously agitate for the Western-fashioned democratic governance, there is the unforeseen danger of them throwing away the baby with the bath water. A careful examination of the bedrock of the real crisis points at the failure to overhaul the anti-African system of governance at the attainment of political independence in 1980. The delay in dealing with the land redistribution issue for example, ensured that the colonially-entrenched institutions would compel the new holders of political power to guarantee the status quo of white economic socialism. The article recommends that the Zimbabwean historians must not divest economic rights from political rights. These two rights are not only intertwined, but they also form the core of all other rights that people are entitled to. These are the rights that the Zimbabwean historians and the perennially marginalised people must fight for and safeguard. The real crisis bedevilling Zimbabwean interpretations of history are the politicians and academics self-serving perceptions of what democratic governance means.
A gringo in the veld : the Latin American element in guerrilla war names in the Zimbabwean liberation war (1966-1979)Source: Latin American Report 26, pp 52 –59 (2010)More Less
Every name is a full text that carries a set of denotations and connotations for the bearer and people around him. This paper first gives a historical background of the Zimbabwean liberation struggle also known as the second Chimurenga. It then sets the nickname in the wider context of name studies and briefly looks at the function of the war name as a nickname. A classification is proposed for the war names and this is followed by analysis and discussion of the names with a Latin American influence. Before coming to a close it discusses the significance of war names as statements of resistance and how the sociocultural background of the guerrillas influenced their choice of names.
Source: Latin American Report 26, pp 60 –73 (2010)More Less
The article assesses demobilisation as an act of changing from war to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops. It views the aims of demobilisation especially in reducing the number of arms and armed personnel in the country. During this period of demobilisation in Zimbabwe, a package in cash or in kind was provided to ex-combatants so as to assist them in their initial stages of resettlement but little was done to cure their mental anguish. Some analysts say that this was the turning point of our economy from bad to worse. The article looks at demobilisation as a key process of transforming combatants into being ex-combatants. It will go on to explore the ways in which culture influences the perception of trauma in an African cultural context. The selected body of Zimbabwean war literature namely: Shimmer Chinodya's Harvest of Thorns (1989), Emmanuel Chiwome's Masango Mavi (1998), Clemence Chihota & Robert Muponde's No More Plastic Balls (2000), College Press's A Roof to Repair (2000), Alexander Kanengoni's Echoing Silences (1997) and Ignatius Mabasa's Mapenzi (1990) sufficiently depicts whether Zimbabwe's demobilisation model managed to transform the psychosocial magnitude of the effects of the Chimurenga War. The researcher is heavily influenced by contemporary post-colonial, literary theories of psychoanalysis, constructionist theories and other related theoretical protocols with niches in African discourse whose judicious application will continue to challenge newer post-modern approaches.