Latin American Report - Volume 29, Issue 2, 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2, 2013
A comparative analysis of thematic issues in selected children's literature from Zimbabwe and the Caribbean IslandsSource: Latin American Report 29, pp 3 –12 (2013)More Less
This article seeks to establish if there are similarities in literary themes in children's literature from Zimbabwe and the Caribbean Islands. This is done by looking at recurrent themes in Caribbean and Zimbabwean children's literatures. The article's analysis is based on two children's literature books, one from Jamaica and another from Zimbabwe. The researchers established that there are similarities in the themes explored in these texts. The themes that feature prominently are those of family, reward of bravery, punishment of crime, and myths and beliefs. This seems to support Summer Edward's assertion that Caribbean children's literature has universal themes that can be found in children's literature the world over. However, it has also been established that there are some themes found in children's literatures that are peculiar to regions and their settings. For instance, some themes in Caribbean children's literature centre on the sea, which is central to the livelihoods of the people and is viewed as the provider of life. Similarly, some dominant themes in the Zimbabwean children's literature revolve around the Great Zimbabwe ruins/world heritage site in the country. On the whole, however, the researchers conclude that common themes in children's literature are universal.
Author Aaron MupondiSource: Latin American Report 29, pp 13 –22 (2013)More Less
This article examines the revolutionary stance in George Lamming's novel, In the castle of my skin (1953). The novel has an emancipatory vision as it mobilises the Caribbean people in Barbados and other parts of the Caribbean to resist colonialism, neocolonialism and mental slavery. What is also notable in the novel is Lamming's redefinition of Caribbean history, thus restoring the true personality of the Caribbean people as creators of culture and agents of social change. Although at the end of the novel, the revolution is hijacked by new black leaders such as Mr Slime, Lamming pins his hope for the future of the nation on progressive and racially conscious people, represented by Trumper.
Source: Latin American Report 29, pp 23 –41 (2013)More Less
This article examines the history of film censorship laws from the era of colonialism up to post-independence Zimbabwe. It is argued that while the Rhodesian censorship laws that infiltrated film images were enacted to stifle black nationalist revolution and advance white supremacist theories that bordered on racism, the newly elected government similarly enacted some draconian statutes in order to stifle dissenting voices in post-independence Zimbabwe. In both cases, vague and ambiguous legal terminology was/is deliberately used in an arbitrary way to ban, restrict and control film images from reaching the public domain. Apart from restricting film images, state power in Rhodesia was exercised by forcing 'dissenting' filmmakers into exile or instilling fear in them so that they ended up imposing 'self-censorship' on their works of art in order to survive. Similar tactics are also deployed by the Zimbabwean government to muffle the voice of filmmakers. This stifles filmmakers' creative imagination by forcing them to concentrate on uncritical issues. In this article, the author will argue that despite a history of suppression, over the years filmmakers have learnt to use different methods of avoiding state censorship by using satirical language, metaphors and complex visual images resulting from technological manipulation. The aim behind using such techniques is to create democratic 'spaces' and promote freedom of expression in Zimbabwe, which was previously denied to black people by the Rhodesian government.
Author Beauty VambeSource: Latin American Report 29, pp 42 –56 (2013)More Less
The aim of this article is to critically compare and evaluate the explanatory possibilities of the terms used for termination of contract and the conditions of their application in South Africa, England and the Convention for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). South Africa uses the term "cancellation", England uses several terms, but "discharge" was analysed in this article while the CISG uses the term "avoidance". This article provides more of a summary than a discussion, but it is also concerned with re-emphasising the similarities and differences in the requirements and general principles of South African law, English law and the CISG. The article starts with critical comments on the choice of the use of the terms "cancellation", "discharge" and "avoidance", which are used to bring a contract to an end under the three legal systems. It has been observed that these terms meet and diverge. The article then goes on to compare the significance of requirements and general principles in order to reveal the form, content and context that influence the interpretation of cancellation, discharge and avoidance as a remedy for breach of contract. The author argues that while under South Africa law, cancellation is an extraordinary remedy, England uses discharge as a right, and avoidance is a remedy of last resort in terms of the CISG.
Source: Latin American Report 29, pp 57 –67 (2013)More Less
The aim of this paper is to add a non-black, non-white female dimension to the male-dominated discourse of the Chimurenga. The collective hero in female narratives is compared and contrasted with the individual hero in male narratives. A narration by a non-white, non-black female nationalist challenges the blackâ??white binary perception of the struggle, heroism and legitimacy in black and white narratives. This literary tool is convenient in the following regard; (1) firstly, the narrating-self may consciously be articulating a particular view or version of events, while unconsciously articulating another. The narrating-subject may be contrasting a particular identity at the conscious level, while unconsciously undermining or contradicting the conscious effort. (2) secondly, tracing repression enables the autobiographical reader to read the 'silences' and critically analyse them. Further, an understanding of sublimation will, hopefully, enable an evaluation of political motive, that is, to evaluate its authenticity, or whether it is a manifestation in noble form of the desire for, say, fame. The superego, or conscience, plays a significant role in the confessional aspects of autobiography. This part is significant as it is used to construct identities. Selective memory is also convenient in assessing the motive behind material selected and omitted by the narrating-subject.
Interrogating community theatre as a tool for change and social development : the case of Amakhosi Theatre Productions companyAuthor Mandiedza ParichiSource: Latin American Report 29, pp 68 –79 (2013)More Less
This article focuses on selected community theatrical productions that have been undertaken by the Amakhosi Theatre Productions company to develop the Matabeleland region. The article explores the selected theatrical projects in relation to the developmental and pedagogical elements adopted by the Amakhosi Theatre Productions company to advocate social change and development in Matabeleland. Through qualitative content analysis, the paper assesses these theatrical performances in relation to community theatre, as the institution is largely premised on providing people with training and skills as a way of empowering the community. As a result, the research establishes how the plays are used to motivate, mobilise and develop communities for social change. The article also makes use of interviews with relevant people from Amakhosi Theatre Productions company and some stakeholders that they have engaged in the selected projects. The article concludes that there is a remarkable change in the way people live if they are part of the projects that are designed to develop them. This conclusion was reached by comparing when theatre for development would be imposed on these marginalised societies and when Amakhosi Theatre Productions company decided to engage and involve local people, using their local languages. The participatory aspect has proved to be one of the most important elements in theatre for social change.
Chimurenga war names as parodic critique of imperialism
A dictionary of Chimurenga War names, Charles Pfukwa : book reviewAuthor Advice ViririSource: Latin American Report 29, pp 80 –85 (2013)More Less
A dictionary of Chimurenga War names by Charles Pfukwa is one of my prize possessions. Dr Charles Pfukwa is a Chimurenga War polymath whose encyclopaedic knowledge of the liberation struggle is unquestionable. He is an associate professor of linguistics, an internationally renowned author and a dominant figure in Zimbabwean print media, being Chief Editor of The Patriot, which has a uniquely large readership among Zimbabweans because of its policy of sharpening people's national consciousness. The dictionary will no doubt generate much interest among all who conceive of national and cultural identity in linguistic terms, regardless of their age. Writers across the African continent have debated the extent to which they should be, in Nadine Gordimer's phraseology, "more than writers" (1989), as well as their commitment and responsibility to examine topical issues. To many readers, the dictionary offers a therapeutic, leisure-time activity and an essentially optimistic perspective of humanity's potential to transform the debilitating effects of colonialism.
Some names provided political jokes in the view of the Bakhtinian theory of carnivals and the carnivalesque, where texts that glorify, mock, parody, scatologise, crown or decrown are represented through names. This carnivalesque form of politics provides a cycle that portrays "hidden dialogue between the oppressed and their marginalized discourse, and the regime and its dominant autocratic discourse" (Badarneh, 2011:305). These names provided subversive humour and a rebellious political tone that mocked the Rhodesian administration, thereby effecting both social and political changes during the colonial era. Chimurenga names celebrated Zimbabwe's liberation even before the attainment of independence. This created a different socio-political framework, which challenged the Rhodesian administration, leading to the carnival element that Bakhtin calls "internally persuasive discourse" (Badarneh 2011: 305), in terms of which official Rhodesian discourse was ridiculed at Pungwe meetings through grotesque realism.
The book has managed to show how Chimurenga names contain an element of dialogism, in terms of which freedom fighters interacted with others, not only by way of language, but also by using words that were "ideologically saturated" to represent the Zimbabwean socio-political ethos and contextual meanings (Craig, 1995:19). Chimurenga names, as texts or utterances, are therefore dialogic.
The emergence of an Apostolic AIC founding text genre in Zimbabwe as a means to establish black hegemony in the churchAuthor Andrew Tichaenzana ManyawuSource: Latin American Report 29, pp 86 –97 (2013)More Less
The role played by religious movements in shaping national destinies in Africa is well documented. In Zimbabwe, the advent of African Instituted Churches (AICs) has been accompanied by the emergence of a new text genre, the Apostolic AIC founding text, born of the need to convey AIC thinking about Africans and Christianity. This article reports findings from a study of the pioneering contribution of Zimbabwean Apostolic AIC founder, Paul Mwazha, to the development of this genre through his founding text, The divine commission of Paul Mwazha of Africa. Using interdiscursivity as an analytical tool, the article identifies and examines discursive strategies that Mwazha uses to weave characteristics of the autobiographic genre into the fabric of his founding text. The article contends that the autobiographic genre is combined with characteristics of the diary and post-contextual reconstruction of memories to incorporate into the founding text data from Mwazha's personal life, couched in Apostolic AIC spiritual discourse. This interdiscursive blend lends credence to Mwazha's claim to spirituality that sets him apart from other Methodist church leaders, aligns him with Shona traditional thinking, and marks him as destined to lead the Christian church. This validates the view that whereas genres are constituted according to the discursive needs of given social practices and domains, they also modify the discourses and social practices that generate them.