n Law, Democracy & Development - The additional protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights : indications of capacity for African municipal systems

Volume 13, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1028-1053
  • E-ISSN: 2077-4907



Since 1945 and the United Nations Charter, the United Nations has promoted human rights as essential to individual liberty, international peace and development. Major human rights treaties and documents include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Punishment, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). International and regional human rights discourse has centred on the protection of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights; viz, the rights to equality and non-discrimination, freedom of expression, liberty, life, privacy, education, a clean environment, bodily integrity, religious and political beliefs, freedom from torture, degrading or inhuman treatment, freedom of movement, association, etc. The above human rights documents, including CEDAW, are legally binding under international law.

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