Lexikos - Volume 10, Issue 10, 2000
Volumes & issues
Volume 10, Issue 10, 2000
Author Kathryn KavanaghSource: Lexikos 10, pp 100 –118 (2000)More Less
Successful communication is dependent upon an adequate level of cultural as well as linguistic understanding. Language is itself part of culture and reflects social structures and attitudes. This paper examines the case for dictionaries to carry cultural as well as lexical information. It reviews the American tradition and purpose of including cultural material in dictionaries, and considers the nature and scope of cultural information contained in a number of modem American and European dictionaries. Various means of presenting cultural information are also examined. The paper concludes by considering the implications for lexicographers developing dictionaries in multicultural South Africa.
An Integrated semasiological and onomasiological presentation of semantic information in general monolingual dictionaries as proposed in H.E. Wiegand's semantics and lexicographySource: Lexikos 10, pp 120 –137 (2000)More Less
Herbert Ernst Wiegand is a very important figure in international metalexicography. A large part of his research has up to now been unavailable to the majority of the English-speaking world, because it has mainly been published in German. A new book Semantics and Lexicography seeks to break through this obscurity by providing English translations of a selection of articles spanning thirty years (from 1976 to 1996), which trace the development of Wiegand's views on semantic information. This book offers a valuable insight into the theoretical and corresponding terminological development that has already had such a remarkable impact on the ""practical science"" metalexicography. This article focuses on Wiegand's theories on the integration of the semasiological and onomasiological presentation of semantic information in the microstructures of general monolingual dictionaries. The theories are explicated and illustrated by examples from two Afrikaans general monolingual dictionaries and evaluated in order to establish their relevance. The conclusion is reached that the semasiological presentation of meaning is most appropriately located in the item giving the meaning paraphrase, which should form part of the semantic comment in an integrated microstructure. In the semantic comment, this item must be followed by dearly distinguished items giving onomasiological information, especially about synonymy.
Author R. H. Prinsloo, D.J. & GouwsSource: Lexikos 10, pp 138 –156 (2000)More Less
Dictionary compilation for the African languages in South Africa stands on the eve of the African Renaissance and prospective compilers of dictionaries for African languages are in need of a sound perspective and guidelines in respect of the compilation and choice of examples. The aim of this article is to analyse and evaluate some current approaches towards the handling of examples of usage as a data category in modem dictionaries and to suggest ways in which this information category can be improved by compiling, selecting and shaping examples to render optimal transfer of infonnation and to enhance information retrieval. The emphasis will be on example phrases and sentences given in the dictionary article.
Author Michael SchlaeferSource: Lexikos 10, pp 157 –172 (2000)More Less
Standards for retrodigitalised dictionaries. In recent years, text retrodigitalisation has been applied increasingly to dictionaries. Retrodigitalisation faces special problems in respect of both dictionaries of older language stages and historical dictionaries of Gennan currently in use. There are technical problems as well as issues ,?f computerisation that need to be addressed, but the main obstacle is the poor quality of lexicographical content and technique. Current retrodigitalised dictionaries show the limitations of retrodigitalisation, especially for systematic data retrieval. Cost-benefit analysis should be applied to each individual case. In case of doubt, the creation of new dictionaries should be preferred to the large-scale and expensive retrodigitalisation of older lexicographically antiquated works.
Author Maria SmitSource: Lexikos 10, pp 173 –188 (2000)More Less
The distinction between encyclopedic and semantic knowledge is well-known. The influential Gennan meta lexicographer, Wiegand, also identifies a third kind of knowledge, which he calls special-field object-constituting knowledge. It is precisely this kind of knowledge users need in order to know to which object a particular lexical item refers, otherwise they cannot use that lexical item referentially in communication. This article focuses on Konerding and Wiegand's (1994) discussion of frames and on their suggestions with regard to frame-based dictionary articles. Certain types of information are of great importance if the object-constituting knowledge is to be conveyed in dictionary articles. The article also investigates the possibilities of using frames in special-field lexicography. A sample article from an ethnomusicological database is presented in which the frame for artefacts, as worked out by Konerding, is applied and discussed. By means of frames, lexicographers can systematically ensure that the special-field object-constituting knowledge is indeed present in the articles they write.
Author Sven TarpSource: Lexikos 10 (2000)More Less
During the last decades, part of lexicography has developed into an independent science with an elaborated system of theories based on the users' needs and corresponding dictionary functions. lhis also applies to specialised lexicography. Many lexicographers, however, still refuse to view their discipline as an independent science and treat it as a subdiscipline, i.e. of linguistics, or they consider specialised lexicography as something different from lexicography in general (which is the case with part of the so-called terminographers). Both interpretations have unfortunate consequences for lexicographic theory and practice. The great challenge now is to strengthen lexicography as a science, and to apply its system of scientific theories to the practical planning and compilation of specialised dictionaries. A look at existing dictionaries shows that there is still a lot of work to be done. Due to economic, editorial and other limitations, a great deal of pragmatism is often practised when compiling a concrete specialised dictionary. Lexicographic pragmatism might be necessary, but in order to be successful it must be guided by theory.
Source: Lexikos 10, pp 209 –224 (2000)More Less
This paper highlights the challenges encountered by the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX) Project (at present the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI)) in Harare, Zimbabwe, which is in the process of compiling an advanced Shona dictionary (ASD). Its forerunner is the general Shona dictionary, Durarnazwi ReChishona (1996). The ASD is intended to be a comprehensive reference work, which will serve as a resource for more advanced users, especially those at higher secondary and tertiary education levels. The most important challenges have been in the areas of headword selection and the treatment of geographical/individual variation. The matters discussed here show the conflict between usage, i.e. popular acceptance, and (orthographic) norm, a problem often experienced in young literary languages subject to heavy foreign influence. This paper looks at: (a) the limitations of the current Shona orthography, the selection and codification of international vocabulary, and the presentation of variants and synonyms in the dictionary, and (b) the solutions suggested, and/or the ongOing debate on the topics.
Author C. T. MsimangSource: Lexikos 10, pp 226 –233 (2000)More Less
The article addresses the question of the elaboration and modei'nisation of African languages to enable them to be oused as language media for the teaching of African languages, particularly grammar. Whereas all institutions at tertiary level of education have undergone a paradigm shift from teaching African languages in English and Afrikaans to teaching them in their own medium, the necessary terms to ensure efficiency in this process are lacking. Scholars therefore need to focus on tenn creation and thereafter standardization of the terminologies. Some flaws in the creation of African tenninologies in the past are highlighted and remedies suggested. It is recommended that statutory bodies such as the Council for Higher Education (CHE) or the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA), or academic bodies such as the African Languages Assodation of Southern Africa (ALASA) could be entrusted with the task of the standardization of these terminologies.
Author Marietta AlbertsSource: Lexikos 10 (2000)More Less
Terminology is a strategic resource in a multilingual country. It is the medium through which knowledge and information is disseminated. lhrough the use of correct, standardised terminology, effective scientific and technical communication skills are developed. A brief overview is given of terminology development in South Africa, with special emphasis on the work of the Terminology Division of the National Language Service. Aspects of present terminology practice such as terminology management, the nature of terminology and terminography, and work-flow procedure in a multilingual terminology office receive attention. To present training activities, initiatives and needs attention is also given.
Source: Lexikos 10, pp 252 –274 (2000)More Less
This paper traces the historical development of lexicography in Gabon. Gabon, like most African countries, is multilingual. The recent inventories of languages spoken in Gabon are those established by Jacquot (1978) and Kwenzi-Mikala (1998). According to Kwenzi-Mikala (1997), there are 62 speech fonns divided into 10 language groups or language-units in Gabon. These speech fonns co-exist with French, the official language. In fact, in article 2 of paragraph 8 of the revised Constitution of 1994 the following can be read: ''The Gabonese Republic adopts French as the official language. Furthennore, she endeavours to protect and promote the national languages."" This constitutional arrangement naturally makes French the language used in education, administration and the media,
Author Herman L. BeyerSource: Lexikos 10, pp 275 –290 (2000)More Less
New Things in New Words - an overview of nonmicrostructural lexicographic innovations. This review article focuses on the nonmicrostructural lexicographic innovations which are apparent in the dictionary under discussion. The emerging notion of user-friendliness in modem lexicographic practice does in no way imply that lexicographic innovations should be limited to the microstructure of dictionaries. Innovative approaches to the presentation of information in the user's guide (where a user's guide exists in a dictionary!) and other elements of the front and back matter in dictionaries playas an important role in making a dictionary more user-friendly as do innovations in the microstructure. New Words/Nuwe woorde. as the newest contribution to the collection of Afrikaans translation dictionaries, exhibits some remarkable nonmicrostructural lexicographic innovations. These innovations are highlighted, evaluated and criticised in this article.
Source: Lexikos 10, pp 291 –305 (2000)More Less
Much of the success of modem dictionaries depends on the accessibility of their macro- and microstructural information. In order to evaluate the methods which lexicographers employ to improve dictionary accessibility, the concept of guide structures was introduced by Hausmann and Wiegand (1989). Since the appearance of that article, various academics have written articles and read papers on guide structures in print dictionaries, but few studies have focussed on the tremendous potential of guide structures in electronic dictionaries. In this article it will be shown that electronic dictionaries add dimensions to the implementation of guide structures not possible in print versions. The role of two of the guide structures in the transfer of infonnation in CD-ROM dictionaries will be discussed. The access and mediostructures of the Microsoft Encarta World English Dictionary and the Elektroniese Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal will be analysed and critically evaluated to illustrate the advantages of electronic dictionaries over print dictionaries and the urgent need for metalexicographical discussion of this publication medium.
Author N. StegmannSource: Lexikos 10, pp 306 –319 (2000)More Less
Juta's Concise Dictionary of Accounting Terms. with their Afrikaans Equivalents. The third edition of the dictionary was composed in 1996 at which time the standardization process of terms was in the middle of an intemationalisation process. Most of the South African Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice which serves as guideline for accounting were revised and brought into compliance with the International Accounting Standards Committee's regulations. As accounting terminology is determined by these Statements of Gellerally Accepted Accounting Practice, a large part of the terms in the dictionary is outdated. Because any author of an accounting text book is defenceless against such changes, the reviewer attempted to identify terms that have since been changed or not been used in accounting previously. The dictionary is a helpful tool for anybody interested in the terminology used in accounting, but will be especially useful for students who need to acquaint themselves with the technical language of accounting,