Lexikos - Volume 2, Issue 2, 1992
Volumes & issues
Volume 2, Issue 2, 1992
Author Marietta AlbertsSource: Lexikos 2, pp 2 –27 (1992)More Less
Needs Assessment in Lexicography. The value of dictionaries lies in their conbibution towards eliminating obstacles in communication. It is of great importance to undertake studies to assess the needs of dictionary users in order to compile effective dictionaries. There are enough indications in the relevant literature to show that needs assessment should take place regularly and that comparative studies are necessary. A literature study shows that different kinds of needs assessment studies have been undertaken in the field of lexicography. Unfortunately there is still no model for assessing lexicographical needs. Because of the nature of the needs assessment studies and lack of proper documentation on the research, follow-up studies are not possible. Owing to gaps in existing lexicographical studies it is necessary to lean heavily on the examples of needs assessment studies in peripheral disciplines.
Author W. F. BothaSource: Lexikos 2, pp 29 –38 (1992)More Less
Word Group and Complex: The Lexicographer, the Spelling Rules and the Language Reality. In the lexicon of Afrikaans there are lexical items that can occur as a word group and as a complex without a difference in meaning, e.g. rooi wyn (red wine) and rooiwyn. In same instances conflict exists between the spelling rules concerning this phenomenon and the language reality. The article dealS with the treatment of the conflict by Afrikaans descriptionptive dictionaries. The lexicographic treatment of the conflict between spelling rules and language reality is determined by the type of dictionary involved. The inclusive dictionary is descriptionptive by nature and should give an honest and complete account of the language reality. The desk dictionary is prescriptive by nature and is concerned with the correct use of language as determined by, for instance, spelling rules. The 1991 edition of the Afriknanse Woordelys en Spelreels narrowed the gap between spelling rules and language reality and simplified the task of the lexicographer considerably. Suggestions are made for alternative treatments and the improvement of the existing treatmen t of lexical items occurring as word groups and complexes.
Author Achmat DavidsSource: Lexikos 2, pp 40 –61 (1992)More Less
It is a relatively well known fact that Cape Muslim Afrikaans has its own distinctive pronunciations which at times differ sharply with that of Standard Afrikaans. What is not so well known, is that apart from its core vocabulary, which is derived from Dutch, Cape Muslim Afrikaans also has a distinctive lexical inventory, created to essentially extend the limitations of the nineteenth century Cape Afrikaans. This essay looks at some aspects of that inventory. Retained within this distinctive lexical inventory are many lexical units which were discarded from Standard Afrikaans during the process of standardization. Cape Muslim Afrikaans also inherited some of its unique lexical units from the Malaya-Polynesian languages of the slave ancestors of the Cape Muslim COIJUIlunity, while its vocabulary was further extended by borrowings from the languages of contact, English and French. Lexical items from Arabic came into its lexicon as a result of the translation of Arabic theological and thea-philosophical tracts into the Afrikaans mother tongue of this community.
Author A. DelbridgeSource: Lexikos 2, pp 64 –72 (1992)More Less
This paper descriptionbes the current setting for lexirography in Australia by reviewing the place of English since the first British settlement began in 1788. The emergence of Australian English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal languages touched on. The greatest change in the language setting came with Australia's immigration policy in its post-World War 11 form. This resulted in the government's eventual recognition of Australia as multilingual and multicultural, and urgently in need of a formal policy on languages, one which treated the many community languages of Australia as an economic, social, educational asset. The paper then summarises the past and present rerord of lexicography, in Australian English, in Aboriginal and community languages, and in languages of its neighbours in the Pacific area. Titles of some of the most important dictionaries are listed in the bibliography. It ends by descriptionbing the outlook of the newly formed Australasian Association for Lexicography.
Author A. E. FeinauerSource: Lexikos 2, pp 74 –84 (1992)More Less
Defining in a Leamer's Dictionary. Because a leamer's dictionary (in this case Basiswoordeboek vir Afrikaans) is directed at the foreign language user it stands to reason that the definitions therein will differ to a great extent from those used in a standard descriptionptive dictionary (for this article the Nasionale Woordeboek). This article discusses the differences in defining between these two types of dictionaries. The dissimilarity in the use of these dictionaries results in the main differences in defining: where the standard descriptionptive dictionary is used mainly for decoding, the learner's dictionary is used for decoding as well as encoding of text. Therefore the definiens should be as unambiguous and user-friendly as possible. The ways in which this could be achieved are descriptionbed, such as the use of full sentences, basic vocabulary, etc.
Author David L. GoldSource: Lexikos 2, pp 86 –136 (1992)More Less
Having reviewed the first and third editions of A Dictionary of South African English in earlier publications, the author examines the fourth edition. He suggests a number of improvements with respect to several aspects of the dictionary, ranging from superficial, though important, matters (like layout and typography) to the most difficult aspects of lexicography (definition and etymology).
Author Ernst F. KotzeSource: Lexikos 2, pp 138 –147 (1992)More Less
Lexicographers compiling translating dictionaries are not exclusively concerned with semantic equivalence when selecting translating equivalents for lemmata, but often include also grammatical information in illustrative examples when the lexical item'to be translated does not have an exact grammatical counterpart in the target language. This is especially so in the case of typologically divergent languages, of which Afrikaans and Zulu are representative examples in the South African context. In the application of translation theory to lexicographic practice, it seems sensible to decide in favour of a descriptionptive approach (Toury 1980), which, in contrast to the prescriptive approach, does not assume an ideal relation between source text and target text, but in fact examines the relation between the two texts (which correlates in the case of a translating dictionary respectively with lemma and translating equivalent) in an empirical way. In this article, the problem of grammatical disparity between lemma and translating equivalent in a learners' dictionary involving the above-mentioned languages is considered. Not only disparity relating to syntactic categories, but also the morphological status of lemmata (as words, and as sub- and multilexical items) are covered in the investigation of the data. As a consequence of the insights thus gained into the systematic nature of this asymmetric relation, suggestions are made to utilise the format of the microstructure as a means to convey grammatical facts of the target language to the learner.
Author F. J. LombardSource: Lexikos 2, pp 149 –164 (1992)More Less
Usage Examples in Dictionaries. Usage examples can includ.e citations, verbal illustrations and / or collocations and should contribute semantically, syntactically and pragmatically towards the way lemmas are presented in a given descriptionptive dictionary. To be as functional as possible, usage examples should meet certain criteria: they should represent real language and not a stylistic variant of language, they should meet the needs of the target-users of the dictionary, they must be easily understood and they should not be contentious. Citations may have certain deficiencies, but the benefits of a good syntactic component far outweigh these. Usage examples can successfully be employed in standard dictionaries, although their treatment in Afrikaans dictionaries leaves something to be desired.
Author P. T. MtuzeSource: Lexikos 2, pp 166 –177 (1992)More Less
The article critically surveys the development of dictionary making among the Xhosa. Besides being an analytical commentary on the earlier Xhosa dictionaries, it is also an overdue objective evaluation of The Greater Dictionary of Xhosa currently being compiled at the University of Fort Hare and which promises to be the most definitive Xhosa dictionary this century.
Author D. J. PrinslooSource: Lexikos 2, pp 179 –191 (1992)More Less
The aim of this article is to evaluate current strategies in the lemmatization of reflexives in Northern Sotho. In particular the so-called ""traditional"" approach according to which reflexives are lemmatized randomly, as well as the more 'rule orientated' alternative, will be critically evaluated mainly against the background of principles such as user friendliness, avoidance / tolerance of redundancy, constant application of rules versus ad hoc decisions, and practical versus linguistic / scientific considerations. The scope is furthermore narrowed down to learners' dictionaries with the target user defined as a mother tongue speaker of English or Afrikaans who studies Northern Sotho. Special attention is given to those cases where SlJUnd changes and or semantic shift occur in the formation of the reflexive. The importance or relevance of the category ""reflexives"", the scope, nature and amount of sound changes, and the viability of an in-depth frequency study on reflexives will be determined from the output of a recently conducted frequency study on 15 randomly selected Northern Sotho books and magazines. It will be concluded that due to serious shortcomings in both the traditional and rule-orientated. approaches, reflexives should be lemmatized on the basis of frequency of use, which in turn will require extended studies on considerably enlarged. data corpora.
Author C. J. SchefferSource: Lexikos 2, pp 193 –200 (1992)More Less
A South African national committee of lSO's Technical Committee 37 was established during 1990. This national oommittee is the link between South African bodies who develop and standardise terminologies and ISO committees who standardise terminologies with a view to the quality control of products. In this article the aims of the national committee as well as an overview of resources that can help to achieve the objectives of the committee are presented. ISO has already consented to a request of the national oommittee that ISO and related terminological data may be put on the National Termbank (NTB). The display of this type of information on the NTB is discussed, as well as the implications for the adapting of lexical databases based on the information needs of developing sodeties. The advantages of the existing national fadlities for users of terminologies and other lexical data as well as the effectiveness brought about by one system to exchange such data nationally and internationally are also emphasised. The implications of language policy decisions on the development of technical languages, terminologies, generallexicography and the dissemination of information will also require special attention in a new South Africa.
Op soek na 'n adekwate linguistiese teorie vir die begronding van die leksikografieteorie en -praktyk -die kognitiewe grammatika as 'n moontlike alternatiefAuthor P.H. SwanepoelSource: Lexikos 2, pp 207 –228 (1992)More Less
In Search of an Adequate Linguistic Theory for Lexicographical Theory and P~axis, - Cognitive Grammar as a Possible Alternative. Various researchers have suggested, and occasionally demonstrated, that cognitive grammar offers a more viable alternative for lexicography than most traditional and structuralist linguistic theories. This paper addresses a number of basic issues in this regard, viz, the role of linguistic theories in lexicography as a scientific praxis, the adequacy of linguistic theories from a lexicographical point of view and the adequacy and viability of cognitive grammar as one such alternative to traditional and structuralist linguistic theories.
Author Y. TonoSource: Lexikos 2, pp 231 –253 (1992)More Less
This paper emphasizes the importance of empirical research on dictionary users and, in particular, investigates the effect of the so-called ""menu"" (a list of definitions at the beginning of a polysemous article) on EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners' dictionary look-up processes. The menu has been increasingly popular in English leamer's dictionaries in Japan, but no empirical evidence has ever shown that it is really effective for reference acts. Two groups of subjects with different levels of reference skills were observed looking up given information in two different types of mini-dictionaries, one with and the other withnut the menu. The results showed that the menu was not so effective for skilled users, but that it helped the less skilled users find the appropriate information.
Author A.E. Van NiekerkSource: Lexikos 2, pp 255 –264 (1992)More Less
Collocations: A Lexicographical Perspective. It is the responsibility of the lexicographer to give an account of collocations in a monolingual explanatory dictionary. Collocations are unpredictable conventionalized sintagmatic combinations and could therefore only be acquired through learning. The native speaker will not necessarily be able to anticipate a particular collocational pattern intuitively. In accordance with the cognitive approach a clear distinction can not be drawn between free phrases, collocations and idioms. The lexicographer should nevertheless be able to justify his distinction within the context of the dictionary. The needs of the dictionary user should always be adhered to. The lexicographical function of coUocations is different from, but supplementary to, those of the definition and the examples respectively. Therefore collocations have a unique position within the linear microstructure which neither the definition nor the examples can replace. The semantic differentiation between base and coUocator is of little importance to the lexicographer. A coUocation can potentially be included in the article of either the base or the coUocator. The detection of collocational patterns can be simplified by the use of a computer. Thus the task of the lexicographer will be eased conSiderably. In supplying collocational information the lexicographer gives substance and s~cture to the dictionary article. The user will, in addition, benefit from a complete, weU-founded treatment of collocations.