Lexikos - Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014
Author Valeria CarusoSource: Lexikos 24, pp 362 –377 (2014)More Less
Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp's Theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries is a long-awaited volume, offering a systematic description of the tenets of function theory. The authors present this theoretical framework both as a guideline in order to accomplish different lexicographical tasks (i.e. from compiling dictionaries to assessing the lexicographical suitability of other theoretical models), and as a valuable methodological tool which can be used to detect the users' needs. The 'Functional approach' is thus considered to be an alternative method to the research on users' behaviour. However, not only the new ideas and the terminology used within this field of lexicographical research deserve attention, but also some issues related to the concept of specialised lexicography, which are briefly outlined by Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp in the book. Their definition of this sub-discipline stimulates further reflections on the epistemic status of the two branches of lexicography (general and specialised) as well as on the related concepts of general and cultural knowledge.
Sleutelkwessies in Fuertes-Olivera en Tarp se Theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries
Daar is lank gewag vir Fuertes-Olivera en Tarp se Theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries - 'n boek wat 'n sistematiese beskrywing bied van die beginsels van die funksieteorie. Die skrywers bied hierdie teoretiese raamwerk sowel as 'n riglyn om verskillende leksikografiese take uit te voer (van die samestelling van woordeboeke tot by die beoordeling van die leksikografiese gepastheid van ander teoretiese modelle) as 'n waardevolle metodologiese instrument wat gebruik kan word om gebruikersbehoeftes vas te stel. Die funksionele benadering word dus beskou as 'n alternatiewe metode tot navorsing oor gebruikersgedrag. Dit is egter nie net die nuwe idees en terminologie wat in hierdie veld van die leksikografie gebruik word wat aandag verdien nie maar ook sekere kwessies verwant aan die begrip van vakleksikografie wat kortliks deur Fuertes-Olivera en Tarp in hierdie boek aangebied word. Hulle definisie van hierdie subdissipline stimuleer verdere nadenke oor die epistemiese status van die twee vertakkings van die leksikografie (algemene en gespesialiseerde) asook oor die verwante begrippe van algemene en kulturele kennis.
Evalueringskriteria en die interaksie tussen die leksikografieteorie en -praktyk; die ontwerp van die Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal as gevallestudieAuthor P.H. SwanepoelSource: Lexikos 24, pp 378 –401 (2014)More Less
Die samestellers van die verskillende dele van die WAT kon steun op die insette van verskeie medewerkers, waarvan woordeboekresensente 'n belangrike groep is. Een van die algemene probleme met die evaluering van woordeboeke van allerlei soorte (sien Nielsen 2006, 2009 en Swanepoel 2008, 2013 vir 'n bespreking) is dat daar egter in resensies - ook in sommige van dié van die verskene dele van die WAT - slegs gesteun word op kriteria vir die ontleding en beskrywing van die ontwerpkenmerke van woordeboeke en dikwels nie ook op 'n duidelik geformuleerde en gemotiveerde stel kriteria vir die evaluering van woordeboeke nie. Hierdie probleem en die onderskeid tussen beskrywingskriteria en evalueringskriteria en die inhoud, struktuur en operasionalisering van evalueringskriteria word in meer besonderhede in hierdie artikel bespreek na aanleiding van veral Feinauer (2007), Gouws (2007, 2011 en 2014), Gouws en Prinsloo (2005), Nielsen (2006, 2009) en Svensén (2009). Ten slotte word hierdie probleem toegelig aan die hand van die ontwerpkenmerke van WAT Deel XIV.
Evaluation criteria and the interaction between lexicographic theory and practice; the design of the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal as case study
The compilers of the various volumes of the WAT have relied on input from various co-workers, of which dictionary reviewers form an important group. However, a common problem with the evaluation of dictionaries of various kinds (cf. Nielsen 2006, 2009 and Swanepoel 2008, 2013) is that reviews only provide an analysis and description of the design features of dictionaries and not also an evaluation based on a set of clearly formulated and motivated criteria for the evaluation of dictionaries. This problem, the distinction between criteria for the description and evaluation of the design features of dictionaries, and the content, structure and operationalization of lexicographic evaluation criteria, are discussed in this article, taking especially Feinauer (2007), Gouws (2007, 2011, 2014), Gouws and Prinsloo (2005), Nielsen (2006, 2009) and Svensén (2009) as point of departure. Finally, this lexicographic problem is discussed with reference to the design features of WAT Volume XIV.
A History of Cant and Slang Dictionaries [Volume I: 1567-1784; Volume II: 1785-1858; Volume III: 1859-1936; Volume IV: 1937-1984], Julie Coleman : book reviewsSource: Lexikos 24, pp 402 –416 (2014)More Less
Now that four volumes of Julie Coleman's documentation of cant and slang dictionaries have appeared, it is a suitable time to consider them together to determine the way she researched their history and the way she presented the results.
The volumes are structured almost similarly, with small variations made necessary by the special requirements of the different periods. Important in the front matter is, except the Prefaces, the Introductions in which Coleman presents, apart from a brief summary of the contents of each volume, the time delimitation of the dictionaries she discusses and the objectives she set herself.
Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: IsiXhosa and English, G.-M. de Schryver et al. (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Dion NkomoSource: Lexikos 24, pp 417 –422 (2014)More Less
Oxford University Press Southern Africa has added the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: IsiXhosa and English to its impressively developing series of bilingual school dictionaries involving English and other official languages of South Africa. The series already has similar dictionaries in other languages namely isiZulu, Northern Sesotho and Afrikaans and is hoped to include the rest of the official languages of South Africa. The dictionary under review is expected to be useful for school learners, educators and the general isiXhosa-speaking community which had to make do with old and outdated dictionaries, most of which were not specifically produced with school learners in mind, especially in the present South African linguistic and educational milieu. For African metalexicographers, it is yet another moment of reflection on the direction that school lexicography is taking, and hopefully producing a symbiotic relationship between metalexicography and practical lexicography, given that the latter has been lacking with respect to school dictionaries.
Source: Lexikos 24, pp 423 –427 (2014)More Less
As there have been few attempts at a systematic study of the history of popular general dictionaries, this book on the Chambers Dictionary, whose tradition goes back to the nineteenth century is especially worthy of cognisance. This study by Kamiński traces the development of the Chambers Dictionary through its successive editions: the three editions which appeared during the last thirty years of the nineteenth century, the first dating from 1867, the nine editions which were published during the twentieth century, the first in 1901, and the second about fifty years later in 1952, and the four editions originating from the first eleven years of the twenty-first century. This comparative approach gives scholars and students insights into the procedures followed by the Chambers compilers, the aims they wished to achieve and the problems they encountered during the consecutive revisions of the dictionary.
Author Stephen OluochSource: Lexikos 24, pp 428 –430 (2014)More Less
A monolingual dictionary is compiled to cater for the speakers of a particular language. The need for this kind of dictionary emanates from the wider use of the language concerned and introduction of new words into that language which may give problem to the speakers. The importance of a dictionary also increases when the language is rendered into writing with different texts expressing various fields of knowledge through it. This scenario may confuse several speakers of that language who may have inadequate vocabulary to enable them understand the meaning of words in different texts. This is the scenario which encountered the Kiswahili speakers when the Kiswahili-Kiswahili dictionary was compiled by Fredrick Johnson (1935). By 1970 it was realized that Johnson's dictionary had some inadequacies because it could not cope with the faster development of Kiswahili. A new dictionary had to be compiled and published in 1981 by The Institute of Swahili Research - Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI) to cater for this paucity.
Author Jose Antonio Jodar SanchezSource: Lexikos 24, pp 431 –441 (2014)More Less
The field of lexicography has proven a fruitful ground from which language learners can benefit (Boers and Lindstromberg 2006). The cognitive approach to dictionary making relies on the motivation of a word's senses so that the connection between literal and nonliteral meaning can be elucidated by foreign language students more easily. Geeraerts (1990), one of the main proponents of cognitive lexicography, claims that many dictionaries make use of cognitive principles such as the prototypicality of senses and their network-structured nature. Experimental studies on the acquisition and retrieval of vocabulary, for instance, have shown the benefits of this approach (Boers 2000). Unlike studies on metaphor encoding (e.g. Van der Meer 1997, 1999; DeCesaris and Alsina 2002; Philip 2006), Wojciechowska's (2012) book and dissertation are among the first attempts to uncover the (un)systematicity of metonymic shifts in English dictionaries. The author's aim is 'to show how the tenets of the cognitive theory of metonymy can benefit the representation of metonymic lexemes in pedagogical lexicography' (2012: 16).