Lexikos - Volume 3, Issue 3, 1993
Volumes & issues
Volume 3, Issue 3, 1993
Author W. F. BothaSource: Lexikos 3, pp 1 –12 (1993)More Less
Aspects of syntactic information in descriptionptive Afrikaans dictionaries. Syntactic information is not presented in a consistent manner in the articles of lexical and multilexical lemmas in descriptionptive Afrikaans dictionaries. New terminology and information resulting from lingtJstic research are seldom portrayed. Three slots for syntactic information in the article of a leIrimaare suggested: a slot for a lexical item classification, a slot for information on the typical syntactic behaviour of a lemma and a third slot for usage examples in which explicit information on non-typical syntactic behaviour is provided. Ways are suggested for the presentation of syntactic information in the articles of multilexicallemmas. Practical proposals are made for the reflection of new terminology and information resulting from linguistic research.
Author G. T. ChildsSource: Lexikos 3, pp 13 –28 (1993)More Less
This paper presents some of the issues involved in preparing a bilingual dictionary for Kisi, an underdocumented language spoken in West Africa. Because the language possesses little in the way of literacy materials, fundamental issues as to orthography, word division, etc., had to be considered. In addition, no grammar of the language (or its closest congeners) was available and thus basic grammatical analysis had to be performed simultaneously. I briefly consider some of these problems, discussing the use of the lexical data base programs known as LEXW ARE. I then focus on the specific problems raised by the expressive word class known to Africanists as ideophones. The conclusion, in the form of advice to future lexicographers of such languages, is that before undertaking such an endeavour, one must seriously assess its feasibility.
Source: Lexikos 3, pp 29 –48 (1993)More Less
Dictionaries have to be compiled in accordance with the specific needs and demands of a well-defined target user. Within the multilingual and multicultural South African society dictionaries should be aimed at the needs of the different groups of language learners. This article discusses aspects of Afrikaans learner's dictionaries. The emphasis is on the need and criteria for such dictionaries, the typical target user and on the nature of the macro- and microstructural information to be included. In a leamer's dictionary the information should be presented in such a way that it can be retrieved without problems. Attention is given to various access structures employed to enhance the retrievability of information. It is argued that a restricted and simplified microstructure leads to a decrease in the density of information but to an increase in the explicitness and retrievability. The article proposes a different approach to the inclusion of certain types of encyclopedic information in learner's dictionaries.
Source: Lexikos 3, pp 49 –66 (1993)More Less
Normative Information in Dictionaries: An Innovative Approach. In a multilingual society linguistic contact leads to language influencing which effects different registers of the language. The standard variety of Afrikaans is largely subjected to language influence resulting from its continuous contact with English. In their treatment of the lexicon dictionaries should reflect the linguistic reality. The results of linguistic contact should also be included in a dictionary. Afrikaans monolingual and bilingual desk dictionaries as well as restricted normative dictionaries have traditionally adopted a strictly prescriptive approach. endeavouring to render the standard language as a puristic variety. This resulted in a restriction of the macrostructural scope of these dictionaries. In this paper the traditional approach is discussed in order to contrast it with an innovative approach to the lexicographical treatment of language Change. The normative Afrikaans dictionary Die korrekte woord is used to illustrate the new approaCh. This dictionary treats the Afrikaans lexicon in a new way by including a substantial number of English loan words. While adhering to its normative assignment Die korrekte woord gives an account of the dynamics of language change. This is done by responding to a new interpretation of the notion ""Standard Afrikaans"". The application of this approach leads to the inclusion of a lemma selection that represents the real standard variety of Afrikaans. The principles applied and the implicatiOns for normative lexicography in general are discussed.
Source: Lexikos 3, pp 67 –82 (1993)More Less
On the basis of several surveys of experts, centres and projects in lexicography, and against the author's own experience of metalexicography, the paper traces the recent progress of academic lexicography, especially in Europe. Particular attention is paid to 'dictionary research' in four of its divisions. One special concern is the professionalisation of the discipline in terms of conferences, publications and training initiatives.
Author D. C. HauptfleischSource: Lexikos 3, pp 83 –138 (1993)More Less
After a reference in the Introduction to action by pressure groups against derogatory language used by the speech community when referring to particular social groups or social convictions, mention is made of various unprotesting social groups. The whole of section 2 is devoted to a discussion of racist language in society. Seven different categories are illustrated with examples from various languages. The important question of how racist language should be handled in dictionaries is examined in section 3. Examples of protests by ethnic pressure groups are given, followed by a wide-ranging discussion of subjects such as the inclusion or exclusion of racist lexical items, definitions and usage labels of racist items, and the utilization of usage examples of racist items with definientia. Where applicable, suitable definitions and effectual usage labels are suggested.
Author J. du T. McLachlanSource: Lexikos 3, pp 153 –166 (1993)More Less
The Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreiils in Practice: A User's View after Two Years of Use. A language practitioner takes a critical look at the eighth improved edition of the Afrikaanse Woorde/ys en Spe/reii/s, the authoritative Afrikaanc; spelling list and spelling rules, after using it intensively for two years. The first impression contains many confusing typographical errors, but these have for the most part been corrected in the second. In many respects the Eighth Edition is an improvement on its predecessor; the rules are explained more comprehensively and the spelling list and abbreviations list are greatly expanded. The spelling list contains more information for the user, for example more diminutives, degrees of comparison, attributive past participles and certain compounds the styling of which often presents problems for writers of Afrikaans. However, some of these rules create problems: they complicate established usage unnecessarily, are formulated inadequately and are difficult to apply in practice, and the examples are too simplistic. The list also .contains many apparent inconsistencies the ordinary user may find incomprehensible and confusing. The conclusion is that, while the publication is in many respects more user:friendly than its predecessor, it lacks the necessary consistency and cohesion. Many shortcomings could have been eliminated if the complete draft had been submitted to language practitioners to use and evaluate in practice.
Author Tony NadenSource: Lexikos 3, pp 167 –190 (1993)More Less
This paper sketches the history of the study of the languages of West Africa, particularly of their lexical resources, offered as a typical example of similar developments elsewhere in the world, The collection of wordlists from the languages and their use to establish genetic relationships is considered, with some practical observations on the imfrovement of this methodology. The final section reports on an ongoing project for a comparative dictionary in northern Ghana, particularly the use of simple semantic network studies both within and across languages. An appendix presents one of the preliminary papers circulated in connection with this project
Author Anna Nel OttoSource: Lexikos 3, pp 192 –204 (1993)More Less
Grammatical Information with Regard to Adjectives in Leamer's Dictionaries. Because a learner's dictionary is used for both decoding and encoding. it should contain far more grammatical information (explicitly indicated) than standard dictionaries. Therefore, with regard to adjectives for example, attention should be given to the following: the possibility or not of inflection; the comparative and superlative forms; a complete identification of the different types of adjectives, an indication whether an adjective can only be used attributively or predicatively; the different ways in which so and sulke are used; the fact that not all ""past participles"" can be deri ved from the passive forms of wees; the provision of a spelling list with the names of people, countries, places, nations, tribes, languages, as well as derivations thereof; cross-references between nouns/verbs and their adjectival correlates if there are striking differences between them, and an indication of adjective complements. The value of valency theory by determining adjective complements is examined in this article and the importance of a distinction between obligatory and peripheral complements for both learners and teachers is stressed. The linguistic categories which can function as adjective complements in Afrikaans are provisionally indicated, but it is stated that further research in this regard is necessary.
Author L. RademeyerSource: Lexikos 3, pp 205 –214 (1993)More Less
Functions of Illustrative Material in Monolingual Dictionaries. illustrative material is a microstructural element which in most dictionaries is .not used to its full potential. Interaction between examples and other microstructural elements is imperative. Correlation between the definiens and illustrative material in the dictionary article aids the user of the dictionary with his encoding skills. Without illustrative material supporting it the information conveyed by the definiens is not as significant as it could be. However, illustrative material should not be viewed as an only means of conveying semantic information. Correlation between usage labels and examples is especially important. An example which contradicts a label, or vice versa, confuses the user. If either label or illustrative material is absent, the user can easily be misled. Illustrative material should also support the grammatical information given in the dictionary article. It has an implicit function because it complements and illustrates the explicit information. A correlation between these two microstructural elements of the dictionary article will result in a dictionary which is more user-friendly. Both citations and constructed examples can be applied successfully to assist the user in the comprehension and generation of utterances. Furthermore examples shows that each lexical item is related to others semantically as well as syntactically. Certain semantic resemblances and differences between related lexical items are reflected by illustrative material. Illustrative material should not be viewed as an optional element of the dictionary article, but as an essential component thereof.
Author Edith H. RaidtSource: Lexikos 3, pp 216 –226 (1993)More Less
Volume VIII of the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (""Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language""). Since its inception in 1926 as a government funded project, the Woordeboek VQn die AfriJalanse Taal has undergone repeated editorial changes which caused extensive delays in the publication of volumes I-VIII (1951-1991) and, quite understandably, elicited serious criticism. With the publication of Volume VIll the letter K is at long last completed. It has taken three decades to compile the words starting with K. Such a delay is totally unacceptable and one can only hope that the future volumes will appear in reasonably quick succession. Volume VIII seems to be a volume in transition concerning editorial policy. Great progress has been made in avoiding the much criticised encyclopedic approach of preceding volumes, the articles are better structured, semantic definitions are on the whole succinct, but the quotations are still too numerous and without any clear sequence. The main points of criticism expressed in this article concern (1) the random choice and ordering of quotations; (2) the lack of consistent etymolOgical references, (3) the lack of historical principles.
Broadening the perspectives of South African English and Afrikaans Research (An Interview with David L. Gold on his Work in these Fields)Author Roy S. RosensteinSource: Lexikos 3, pp 227 –258 (1993)More Less
David L. Gold is a student of South African English and Afrikaans who looks at these two languages in the context of several other Germanic languages, as well as other Indo-European and certain non-Indo-European languages. He suggests that the traditional comparison of Afrikaans only with European Dutch be supplemented by comparing it with New Netherland Dutch, which, like Afrikaans, began as a non-European variety of Dutch in the seventeenth century. A comparison of Afrikaans and New Netherland Dutch sheds light not only on those two languages but on earlier European Dutch too. Gold suggests that the etymology of Afrikaans lexemes not be limited to their form but be extended to their meanings as well. If effect is given to that suggestion, we see that South African English has had greater influence on Afrikaans vocabulary than hitherto believed, i.e., the meanings of many Afrikaans lexemes are of English origin, although the lexemes themselves are not of tha t origin.
Source: Lexikos 3, pp 259 –281 (1993)More Less
A Database of 14th Century Middle Dutch Dialects on Computer. This study descriptionbes the organization of a database, created at the Free University Amsterdam, consisting of about 2,500 charters in Middle Dutch, about 750,000 tokens. The charters were written in the Netherlands and Flanders between 1300 and 1400. Only original texts were chosen, which are dated and located. Most of them have not been published before and are to be found in the archives of The Hague, Leiden, Zwolle, Antwerp, Brussels, etc. Tt is shown how a charter is treated on its way from the archives to its computer format, how the data are structured and how new information - morphological coding - is added. Special attention has been paid to the way how information has been stored which is not easy to be handled on computer directly. The enriched text may be used for different purposes, not only lexicographical but even dialectal. The second part of the study serves to illustrate how the data can be exploited in view of dialect research. As an example, the verb ""zullen"" has been chosen. It is shown that the vowels of this verb are not the same in the different Dutch speaking areas. The results are represented on dialect maps.