Lexikos - Volume 4, Issue 4, 1994
Volumes & issues
Volume 4, Issue 4, 1994
Source: Lexikos 4, pp 2 –33 (1994)More Less
Ideological Polysemy in Monolingual Afrikaans Dictionaries. Afrikaans dictionaries are often criticised for their biased treahnent of ideologically charged lemmas and senses. In order to redress ideological imbalances in a sensible way, theory-based strategies for the treahnent of political-ideological lemmas / senses should be devised. Following German scholars such as Dieckmann, Hermanns and Strauss, the phenomenon manifested by the presence of variable ideological subsenses (within a single polysemic sense) is termed 'ideological polysemy' and is explored in depth. On the basis of specific articulations in the subsenses of political-ideological lexical items a typology of semantic schemas is proposed. Each typological category is represented by a schema for a prototypical member of that category. The schemas are applied diagnostically to selected entries in monolingual Afrikaans dictionaries in order to demonstrate how ideological bias may be identified and remedied by lexicographers.
Some problems in recording and analyzing South African English vocabulary using Non-South African texts (The experiences of an outsider)Author David L. GoldSource: Lexikos 4, pp 35 –60 (1994)More Less
This article descriptionbes some problems in collecting and studying South African English vocabulary on the basis of non-South-African texts faced by a linguist who is a native speaker of American English. The questions are thus: Are non-South-African texts just as reliable as South African texts? More reliable? Less reliable? And is a linguist who is a native speaker of a different variety of English just as reliable as a native? More reliable? Less reliable? It is suggested here that the best way of studying a language, if possible, is by having both insiders and outsiders look at the material.
Author R.H. GouwsSource: Lexikos 4, pp 61 –84 (1994)More Less
Ostensive Addressing in Translation Dictionaries. From a semantic perspective the inclusion of translation equivalents can be regarded as the most important component of the lexicographical treatment in translation dictionaries. One seldom finds a complete agreement in the semantic scope of lemma and translation equivalent. Consequently the lexicographer has to include additional entries to achieve a relation of communicative equivalence between source and target language. The need for this additional information is especially noticeable in articles with an equivalent relation of semantic divergence. The polysemous character of the lemma compels the inclusion of different translation equivalents for each polysemous sense of the lemma. To assist the dietionary user in his choice of equivalents it is imperative that the equivalents should be complemented by contextual information.
Lexical Co-occurrence and Lexical Inheritance. Emotion Lexemes in German: A Lexicographic Case StudySource: Lexikos 4, pp 86 –161 (1994)More Less
In the present paper, we taclcle the problem of the compact and efficient representation of restricted lexical co-occurrence information in the lexicon along semantic lines. The theoretical framework for this study is the Mt'Il1Iing Tert Theury (MIT) and, more specifically, the lexicographic part of M1T - the Explanatory Commnatorial Dictionary (ECD), which contains for each lexeme (i) its semantic definition. (ii) a systematic descriptionption of its restricted lexical co-occurrence in terms of Lexical Functions (LF), and (iii) its Guoernment Pattern. The data domain is the semantic field of emotion lexemes in German. In order to represent the restricted lexical co-occurrence (or collocations) of the lexemes in this field, we suggest the following procedure: 1. Construct approximate descriptionptions of their meaning, i.e. what we call the abridged lexicographic definitions. Formulated in terms of semantic features, these definitions are supposed to provide as much semantic information as necessary for establishing correlations between the semantic features of a lexeme and its collocates. 2. Specify their syntactic Government Patterns, which are needed for a clearer picture of their cooccurrence - syntactic as well as lexical. 3. Specify their restricted lexical co-occurrence with the verbs chosen. 4. Establish correlations between the values of LFs and the semantic features in the abridged definitions of the emotion lexemes. 5. Based on these correlations, extract recurrent values of LFs (and recurrent Government Patterns) from individual lexical entries and list them under what we call the generic lexeme of the semantic field under study - in this case, GEFUHL 'emotion'. This leads on the one hand, to ""compressed"" lexical entries for emotion lexemes, and on the other hand, to the creation of a exical entry of a new type: the ""public"" entry of a generic lexeme.
Author Michael SchlaeferSource: Lexikos 4, pp 162 –177 (1994)More Less
The Thesaurus Concept in Grimm's German Dictionary. Users often expect to find a complete collection of German vocabulary and quotations in Grimm's German Dictionary. These opinions result from different pretensions of Grimm lexicographers to produce a thesaurus. A historical analysis allows us to discern four different thesaurus concepts in the development of the German Dictionary. During the first period the concept was determined by the attempts of]. Grimm to document the richness of the entire German language in only one dictionary. With regard to certain puristic selections this thesaurus concept can be descriptionbed as a 'regulated selected richness'. In the following period regulating elements were replaced by philological scientific methods to give reasons for the maintenance of what R. Hildebrand called internal completeness. The new scientific argument of completeness is the basis for the rise of the German Dictionary to the state of a national thesaurus as well as the slowing down of production. Due to this the dictionary lost part of its acceptance, and the planning of an alternative thesaurus was started. When, in 1908, the Prussian Academy took charge of the German Dictionary the third period of the thesaurus concept, which included several reforms, began. Above all, the claim for completeness was limited to the variety of cultivated speech. These reforms, however, could only solve part of the problems.
Author Christelle TrautmannSource: Lexikos 4, pp 178 –187 (1994)More Less
Multivergence: A Network of Equivalence Relations. In a translation dictionary source language items are represented as lemmas and translation equivalents are provided for the source language items. Due to this lexicographical practice different types of equivalence relations exist between the source items and the target language items. Multivergence is a type of equivalence relation that has a high frequency in translation dictionaries. This is caused by the semantic structure of languages. The general perception is that multivergence is a combination of two equivalence relations, namely divergence and convergence. Owing to this definition of multivergence, an explanation of divergence and convergence is required. In this study reference is made to lexical and semantic divergence and convergence. Different types of multi vergence are distinguished: (i) lexical divergence and lexical convergence (ii) lexical divergence and semantic convergence (iii) semantic divergence and lexical convergence (iv) semantic divergence and semantic convergence Attention is also given to communicative equivalence as well as the synonymity that exists between lexical items. Intra- and interlingual semantic relations are discussed.
Orthographic and morphological problems in Headword identification, selection and presentation in ALLEXAuthor Herbert ChimhunduSource: Lexikos 4, pp 188 –203 (1994)More Less
This article discusses aspects of an on-going lexical computing project at the University of Zimbabwe, known as ALLEX, the acronym for African Languages Lexical Project. ALLEX is a collaborative, multi-faceted, long-term, computer-aided lexicography project that is intended to produce a series of dictionaries, glossaries and other language reference works in the indigenous languages of Zimbabwe, starting with the first ever monolingual Shona dictionary, which is already at an advanced stage of preparation, and which will also be the first corpus-based dictionary in Zimbabwe. The article confines itself to problems relating to word formation processes in Shona, specifically with reference to the lexicographers' need to ensure consistency in (i) identifying word fonns as headwords in the running texts of the corpus, (ii) selecting from among these headwords to decide which ones to enter in the dictionary, and (iii) presenting the entries in the standard orthography. First, an outline is given of the project's baCkground, objectives, priorities, guidelines and work in progress. The article then focuses on specific problems encountered, and discusses these, and some of the solutions, in the light of advances in computer lexicography, with particular reference to concordancing. It will become evident that the problems encountered by the ALLEX Team have to do with the unlimited capacity of the Shona language's basic and derivational word fonnation processes, which it shares with the other languages in the Bantu family. Therefore, it will be suggested that these problems, and the solutions that are being worked out, have much wider implications that go beyond Shona and Zimbabwe.
Author F. J. LombardSource: Lexikos 4, pp 204 –214 (1994)More Less
Lexicographer, dictionary user and linguist constitute three important role players in any lexicographical activity. In this presentation they are depicted as three sides or angles of a triangle. Unlike a real rnathernatical triangle where the three sides always rneet, lexicographer, linguist and user are often at loggerheads. Reasons for this phenornenon are ventured and I try to establish whether the lexicographer can reconcile the progressive and epherneral outlook of linguists with the often conservative needs of users. Ways to reduce the tension between lexicographer, linguist and user are also discussed.
Author W. MartinSource: Lexikos 4, pp 215 –229 (1994)More Less
Lexicology as University Vocational Training. This article consists of two parts. Part one (paragraphs 1-3) deals with the notion 'lexicon', part two (paragraphs 4-7) introduces and presents the study programme 'Lexicology' such as it is conceived at the Free University of Amsterdam. The lexicon as object of study is taken up as 'an organized lexical knowledge bank that language users have at their disposal and which enables them to produce and understand language (at lexical level)'. The main concern of lexicology therefore is the organization and structure of such a bank. The role played by it in both language production and language understanding is illustrated. In the part dealing with the study programme 'Lexicology' itself most attention is paid to the final attainment levels. A distinction is made between common-general and more specific ones. As to the common-general ones the notion 'lexical knowledge' plays a central role. The various ways of its definition, representation, derivation, exploitation and application are all to be considered. As to the more specific attainment levels a differentiation is made according to 'study-paths', viz. lexicography terminology / terminography and computationallexicology for all three of them, a short characterization in terms of motivation, aim, final attainment levels and job opportunities is given. Finally a survey is given of the actual study programme (including the one for the European Lexicography Diploma) so to make clear the relationship between theory and practice and to clarify the notion 'profeSSional training at university level'.
Author James S. MdeeSource: Lexikos 4, pp 230 –248 (1994)More Less
Swahili is a second language to many East and Central Africans, and a foreign language to its learners from Europe, America, Asia and other parts of Africa as well. Yet it lacks a monolingual Swahili learners' dictionary specifically designed for them. The paper discusses the need for a monolingual Swahili pedagogical dictionary which helps the foreigner learn the language. A pedagogical dictionary is oriented towards encoding Swahili, hence it is logical that some Swahili grammatical aspects are incorporated into the dictionary: noun class system, concordial agreements, the morphology of the language, etc. The paper is based on the premise that dictionary. writing should be based on the users' needs which can be found out by consulting them through research. A research conducted in language schools where Swahili is taught as a foreign language covered eight items which the subjects were asked to respond to. These included: dictionaries they use, selection of a word list for a Swahili dictionary, treatment of verb derivatives, information categories to be entered in a dictionary and descriptionption of meaning. The research revealed the information categories that Swahili dictionary users would like to see included in a dictionary designed for them. It also showed that dictionary users know their needs and that they are very resourceful and useful to the lexicographer. They can help the dictionary maker to compile a dictionary tailored to their needs and wishes.
Source: Lexikos 4, pp 250 –281 (1994)More Less
Verklarende Afrikaanse WoordeboekB as a Reflector of Norm Replacement. Norm replacement is seen as a process whereby a norm or a set of norms are gradually replaced by another norm or set of nonns. Over a period - even a decade - norm shifts of diverse types occur and are manifested in scientific, social and linguistic behaviour. The standard synchronic dictionaries of a language should reflect norm replacements, especially if these replacements have been lexicalised. VAW8 is reviewed with special regard to its reflection of ideological norm replacement, metalexicographical norm replacement and prescriptive norm replacement. The compilers are praised for their sensitive treatment of ideolOgically sensitive lexical items, i.a. by removing offensive racist terms and by sensitively redefining lemmas pertaining to certain race groups. They are also lauded for relaxing prescriptiveness regarding English loan words and Afrikaans colloquialisms. VAWS is however criticised for its disregard of important metalexicographical developments of the past decade. It is argued that the implementation of theoretical insights could have contributed towards improved systematicity and user-friendliness as well as towards quicker information retrieval.
Author Anna Nel OttoSource: Lexikos 4, pp 282 –293 (1994)More Less
Tweetalige Aanleel'del'swool'deboek. Bilingual Learner's Dictionary by Madaleine du Plessis. In this review article the discussion concentrates on the pwpose of leamer's dictionaries, viz. to improve the communicative competence of a foreign language Leamer, and on usage guidance in Leamer's dictionaries. It is pointed out that target users should be clearLy identified and their needs assessed before the dictionary is compiled. The function of the dictionary should also be determined and throughout be taken into account, and the dictionary should ideally be an appropriate medium for both decoding and encoding.