Lexikos - Volume 5, Issue 5, 1995
Volumes & issues
Volume 5, Issue 5, 1995
Author Pieter HarteveldSource: Lexikos 5, pp 1 –39 (1995)More Less
The Influence of Computerization on Lexicographical Terminology. Where new technological developments like the computer and new scientific disciplines like computer science penetrate existing fields of study, they influence them terminologically. This is also the case with computerized lexicography. In this article recent lexicographical terminology is looked at inter alia in the light of publications by F.J. Hausmann and H.E. Wiegand in order to make provision in this terminology for the relatively new field of computer lexicography which, just like the so-called field of manual lexicography, is regarded here as a subfield of lexicography.
Author Buyiswa M. MiniSource: Lexikos 5, pp 40 –56 (1995)More Less
Working on the lexicography of isiXhosa has led to the interesting experience of discovering that the descriptionption of the lexicon of isiXhosa poses innumerable challenges of both a semantic and a non-semantic nature. The problems encountered, some of which this article is an account of, include lack of understanding of the nature, depth and volume of work involved in compiling dictionaries, complexities idiosyncratic to the language itself, factors affecting consistency in methodology and other aspects, as well as extra-Linguistic issues like orthography, finance, technology and relevant skills. Some of the problems rise from the very recognition of the fact that dictionaries playa Significant role in "" ... eliminating obstacles in communication"" (Alberts 1992: 1) and the consequent desire or ambition to produce as perfect a dictionary as possible.
Considering bilingual dictionaries against a corpus. Do English-French dictionaries present "Real English"?Source: Lexikos 5, pp 57 –81 (1995)More Less
This article investigates the extent to which four representatives of the latest generation of English-French / French-English dictionaries present ""real English"", i.e. actually used meanings of actually used English word patterns. The findings of a corpus study of the verb CONSIDER are confronted with the entries for this verb in the English-French sections of these dictionaries, leading to the conclusion that there are important gaps in both the semantics and the lexicogrammar they cover, and that the organization of entries does not match the corpus frequency data. Corpus research could help to fill the gaps and should therefore be taken seriously by compilers of bilingual dictionaries.
Author E.B. Van WykSource: Lexikos 5, pp 82 –96 (1995)More Less
Two lexical traditions exist in the African languages of South Africa. Acoording to the word tradition, lemmas are based on complete written words, and there is a one-to-one correspondence between written words and lemmas. According to the stem tradition, lemmas are based on the stems of written words without their prefixes. It is pointed out that the difference between these traditions lies mainly in the treatment of nouns. It is also shown that the stem tradition, uncritically regarded by many linguists as more scientific, is based on incorrect assumptions with reference to the morphology of nouns, that it is not applied conSistently and that it is less user friendly. It is concluded that the word tradition is based on sounder lexicographical principles.
Author W. F. BothaSource: Lexikos 5, pp 97 –104 (1995)More Less
A new approach to the treatment of racist lexical items. Views on the treatment of racist lexical items are marked by the two extreme viewpoints of exclusion and inclusion with exhaustive treatment. Exclusion may be judged by posterity as falsification of history and inclusion with exhaustive treatment as insensitivity. The article focuses on a new approach in the way of inclusion with limited visible treatment. Racist lexical items are included in the printed dictionary, but with limited and sensitive treatment. An exhaustive treatment in electronic format is however available to the dictionary user on request.
Source: Lexikos 5, pp 105 –116 (1995)More Less
The main objective of language teaching is to improve language proficiency with regard to reading, writing, speaking and listening. The dictionary is one of the aids that can be used to attain this goal. There are however a number of stumbling blocks in the way of optimal utilization of dictionaries. Poor reference skills and a lack of knowledge with regard to dictionary typology seem to be the most prominent among these. It is argued that reference skills could be developed by the teaching of reference strategies, preferably by integrating dictionary-using exercises with other language learning activities, and by structuring these exercises according to the stages of the actual reference process. Dictionary pedagogy should ideally be introduced in the L1 class during primary education, but students will definitely still benefit if dictionary skills are taught during the intermediary stages of second or foreign language learning. It is anticipated that students who have become convinced of the problem-solving potential dictionaries through personal experience will become independent learners who will continue using dictionaries even after the years of formal education.
Author J. G. KruytSource: Lexikos 5, pp 117 –137 (1995)More Less
Since the early eighties, computer technology has become increasingly relevant to lexicography. Computer science will probably not be the only technological discipline which may have implications for future computerized lexicography. Some developments in the fields of language technology, information technology and knowledge engineering, may support lexicographical practice and enhance the quality of the resulting dictionary. The present paper discusses how the analysis and interpretation of electronic corpus data by the lexicographer may be improved by automatic linguistic analYSiS, by better access to the corpus, and by a more flexible communication with the computer system. As a frame of reference, first an indication of the state of the art in computerized leXicography will be given, by a concise discussion of three projects at the Institute for Dutch Lexicology INL considered in an international context: the conversion of the Woordenboek der Nederlalldsche Taal WNT (Dictionary of the Dutch Language Based on Historical Principles) to electronic form, the compilation of the Vroegmiddelllederlands Woordellboek (Dictionary of Early Middle Dutch) in a computerized lexicographer's workbench, and the INL Taalbank (INL Language Database). Although the topic of this paper is technology, focus is on functional rather than technical aspects of compu terized lexicography.
Source: Lexikos 5, pp 138 –165 (1995)More Less
A Critical Review of HAT3. HAT can be viewed as one of the most widely used and most authoritative desk dictionaries of Afrikaans. On the basis of this status and authority it can duly be expected that the most significant changes which have occurred in the Afrikaansspeaking community during the past decade are reflected in the third revised and updated edition, published in 1994. Among these are socio-political changes, rapprochement between Standard Afrikaans and the vernacular, and a departure from elitism in favour of populism. Firstly, the front matter is reviewed with regard to the extent in which these tendencies are reflected. Secondly, aspects of the micro- and macrostructure are discussed in view of the extent to which they echo the Voorn70ord (user's guide). Aspects looked into are descriptionptiveness and prescriptiveness, userorientation, ideology, headword selection, as well as the systematic and motivated implementation of lexicographic and typographical conventions. It is concluded that the third edition of HAT is a great improvement on the second, especiaUy with regard to ideological sensitivity, userfriendliness and a calculated break with the Afrikaans lexicographic tradition of linguistic purism.
Author I. J. GroveSource: Lexikos 5, pp 166 –186 (1995)More Less
The Afrikaanse Verklarende Musiekwoordeboek. The Afrikaanse Verklarende Musielaooordeboek (1994) targets a gap in the literature available for Afrikaans-speaking music enthusiasts. It provides brief insight into basic aspects of music notation, proceeds to an alphabetical glossary, and lists some South African composers and their works. The last section is based largely (and without acknowledgement) on the SlIid-Afrikaallse Mllsiekellsikiopedie (1980-1986). The author has attempted to supply an Afrikaans equivalent for the internationally acclaimed American Han.ard Dictiollary of Music (latest edition 1986), and follows its format as a main source, again without acknowledgement. The procedure amounts to a somewhat arbitrary selection of facts, translated incorrectly at times and either misinterpreted or presented in a confusing manner at others. One consequence of such a procedure is undue emphasis on the American scenario at the cost of a potential reflection of the South African musical scene. Certain subjects and terms central to the science of music are omitted or underemphasized, often in favour of irrelevancies. The excessive length of an article like that on the history of music reveals a lack of balance in the publication, as well as essential deficiencies regarding a feasible and consistent system of crossreferencing. The mostly informal register of language verges on untidy unwieldiness. The astounding absence of collaborators can also be held to blame for the fact that the publication largely fails to contribute to the sparse Afrikaans literature covering the discipline of musicology.
n Leksikografiese metode: die WAT en die probleem van ensiklopedisiteit in die verklarende linguistiese woordeboek*Author Piet SwanepoelSource: Lexikos 5, pp 187 –210 (1995)More Less
An Exegesis of a Lexicographic Method: The Woor4eboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT) and the Problem of Encyclopedicity in Monolingual Linguistic Dictionaries. The WAT has often been criticised for its encyclopedic features. In this article a critical review is given of the metalexicographical points of view from which one of its editors, F.J. Snijman, motivates the so-called ""encyclopedic"" features of the WAT. Snijman shows . convincingly that the problem of the encyclopedic nature of monolingual dictionaries cannot be reduced to a naive confusion between the linguistic meaning and knowledge of the referents of words, but that the ""encyclopedic"" lexicographical practices of monolingual dictionaries are well motivated, theoretically and pragmatically. It is argued, though, that Snijman does not motivate his own choice of metalexicographical points of view and does not discuss a number of critical issues in enough depth.
Beleid vir die hantering van beledigende en sensitiewe leksikale items in die Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse TaalSource: Lexikos 5, pp 232 –248 (1995)More Less
Outline of the policy for the treatment of insulting and sensitive lexical items in the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal: Common to all sensitive lexical items all simplexes, compounds and expressions are lemmatized all conform to the general usage criterion of the Bureau clear and correct labelling takes place, which also applies to insulting synonyms the metalanguage is neutral no collocations or editorial usage examples are given citations (where included) are chosen with care articles are checked by advisors to the Bureau A. Racist tenns 1. Treabnent in the WAT (a) Wholly racist lexical items for the definition, the item is referred to the most commonly used synonym; no racist synonyms are, however, given at neutral or racist lexical items no semantic oppositions are given no citations are given expressions are explained; no synonyms, antonyms, references and illustrative material are given with such expressions the same manner of treatment applies to racist expressions under neutral lemmas complete treatment takes place in electronic form (see 2 below) (b) Partially racist lexical items neutral semantic distinctions are treated in full racist semantic distinctions and expressions are treated as wholly racist lexical items This policy has been accepted by the Board of Control of the Bureau of lhe WAT as its official policy for the treatment of insulting and sensitive lexical items in the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal. The Bureau gladly accepts comments on this document. Reproduced by Sabinet Gateway under licence granted by the Publisher (dated 2011) 250 P. Harteveld and A.E. van Niekerk 2. Treabnent in the electronic manuscript references to or the noting of synonyms and semantic oppositions are given citations are given electronic manuscript is available on request B. Sexist tenns and sensitive lexical items which indicate stigmatized sexual phenomena, practices and preferences among people the definition is given at the most commonly used neutral synonym references to or the noting of synonyms are given antonyms and formal references are given citations are given expressions are explained C. Sensitive lexical items which indicate stigmatized physical or mental conditions and phenomena among people treatment as in B above D. Sensitive lexical items within a social, political and religious structure treatment as in B above E. Obscene and vulgar lexical items, abusive language and swear-words treatment as in B above