Lexikos - Volume 6, Issue 6, 1996
Volumes & issues
Volume 6, Issue 6, 1996
Author Willam FrawleySource: Lexikos 6, pp 1 –13 (1996)More Less
This paper examines the way dictionaries descriptionbe meta forms, items that refer to the linguistic system itself (e.g., pronouns and indexicals). The paper first shows the inconsistent grammatical classification of metaforms, which are usually and incorrectly categorized as adverbs, conjunctions, prepOSitions, or interjections. It is then argued that metaforms should be classified in their currently known grammatical categories: discourse marker (now), focus particle (even, like), quotative (like), and so on. Discussion then turns to the definitions of meta forms, with illustration of their incorrect or misleading semantic characterization and suggestions for capturing their denotations consistently. This examination of the lexicography of metaforms is ultimately a case study in how dictionary making might be informed by judicious use of current grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic theory.
Source: Lexikos 6, pp 14 –31 (1996)More Less
In a multilingual society dictionaries play an important role in assisting to achieve communicative success between the speakers of the different languages. Speakers in a multilingual society often employ a bilingual dictionary as the only instrument to meet their lexicographic needs. This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. This article focuses on the contents and the presentation of bilingual dictionaries. To achieve the optimal transfer of information for South African bilingual dictionaries, some general problems are identified and discussed. With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans dictionaries. Suggestions are made to expand the outer access structure and to employ innovative methods, including the use of inserted inner texts, to improve the inner access structure. Changes in the addressing procedures to make provision for the more frequent use of'nonlemmatic addressing procedures are also suggested.
Author Mohamed Helmy HelielSource: Lexikos 6, pp 32 –43 (1996)More Less
The paper centres on a plan for an English-Arabic phrasal verb dictionary for Arab trainee translators. Such a dictionary answers a pressing need. It is not a bilingual dictionary but a translation one. This requires special lexicographical treatment as regards selection of headwords, structure of phrasal verbs, literal and figurative usage, definitions, synonyms, illustrative examples, relatedness of meaning, order of senses, collocations and discriminated equivalents.
Author M. Lynne MurphySource: Lexikos 6, pp 44 –70 (1996)More Less
This paper considers the issues and options in creating orthographies for languages without alphabetic traditions. In particular, it looks at issues that face linguists and anthropologists in creating such orthographies for preliminary descriptionptive work on a language. It is often the case that these orthographies by linguistic outsiders later serve as the bases for literacy-aimed orthographies. Thus, the lexicographer is constrained not only to present the language accurately, but to not undermine indigenous literacy projects for that language. This paper looks at the particular case of devising an orthography for Beng. a Southern Mande language of Cote d'Ivoire, in order to illustrate the problems inherent in alphabetising an unfamiliar language.
Author Tony NadenSource: Lexikos 6, pp 71 –103 (1996)More Less
This paper first draws attention to the necessity of careful choice of tenninology in ological discUSSions of the areas of culture often tenned 'traditional religion', especially in the of terms like 'worship', There follows a discussion of some of the methodological difficulties in this area, with the suggestion that a lexicological approach to the vocabulary used by members of the society studied may make a useful contribution to understanding here. The second part presents tabulated lexical data from the Western Oti / Volta languages which illustrates the problems and possibUities discussed.
Author A.F. PrinslooSource: Lexikos 6, pp 104 –115 (1996)More Less
The Morphological Reduction Trigger Moet and the Dictionary. The Afrikaans auxiliary verb moet (""must"") can, within certain contexts, act as a trigger for the morphological reduction of a compound main verb of the sentence without changing the semantic content of that sentence (a condition, in fact, for all morpholOgical reduction). The circumstances under which this occurs are examined, and lexicographical evidence and implications are discussed.
Author Yukio TonoSource: Lexikos 6, pp 116 –132 (1996)More Less
In this paper, we descriptionbe an on-going project of the corpus of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in Japan and its application for pedagogical dictionary compilation. We especially focus on the learners' errors in verb collocation patterns and descriptionbe how the leamer's dictionary can benefit from the learners' error information based upon the learner corpora.
Author Herbert Ernst WiegandSource: Lexikos 6, pp 133 –158 (1996)More Less
This article presents an excerpt from a theory of lexicographic texts which deals particularly with dictionary articles. Almost all characteristics of dictionary articles considered as typically lexicographic may be regarded as results of textual condensation processes. A theory of textual condensation in lexicography thus makes it possible to analyse the lexicographic textual condensation from a uniform perspective; it allows us to calculate exactly the degree of textual condensation, it contributes to the construction of a scientific predicate user-friendlier as, and gives us insights which will make the formulation of dictionary articles more teachable. The theory consists of two parts: a partial theory of inner and a partial theory of outer textual condensation. The first part explains in which way textual condensation may be understood as a process leading from a full text (a text shOwing complete cohesion and explicit syntax) to a condensed article text (with addressing as syntax substitute and dependence on a inetatext). With respect to a monosemous lemma sign, the textual condensation process goes through only one stage, to be exemplified here. With respect to a polysemous lemma Sign, there is a second stage, including shifts to the left. Certain article types with certain microstructures such as the annexed microstructures may go through a third stage of textual condensation, accompanied by shifts to the right. The second part of the theory deals with the condensation processes which regard the carriers of the guiding element and which, inter alia, lead to reference articles and lemma clusters. Finally, attention is drawn to a different form of textual condensation regarding the proportion of printed characters in relation to the total printed matter.
Author Willem BothaSource: Lexikos 6, pp 159 –170 (1996)More Less
The WAT and etymology: Will the cycle be completed? Afrikaans historical lexicography is a neglected discipline and to a large extent metalexicographers hold the overall-descriptionptive Afrikaans dictionary, Die Woordeboek van die Ajri1cJumse Taal, responsible for this state of affairs. The WAT, however, descriptionbes itself as a synchronic dictionary aimed at descriptionbing the present usage of Afrikaans. Limited etymological information is included. Ironically it was the ideal of the first editor of the WAT that it should contain concise etymological infonnation on the whole of the Afrikaans lexicon. This task however, proved to be welJ beyond his reach and future editors did not believe a historical descriptionption of Afrikaans to be the aim of the synchronic WAT. Practical proposals are made for the satisfactory presentation of etymological infonnation on the Afrikaans lexicon.
Source: Lexikos 6, pp 171 –183 (1996)More Less
Meeting Lexicographic Needs. A multilingual and multicultural South Africa has its own lexicographic needs and the fulfilment of these needs demands thorough planning and the employment of a sound and effective organisational theory. This paper focuses on a few priorities to meet the South African lexicographic needs. The contents of a dictionary as well as the presentation of the infonnation should be directed at a well-defined target user. Not only the linguistic needs of this target user but also his research skills should have an influence on the planning and compilation of any specific dictionary. Using a metalexicographic model this paper discusses different aspects of interest in determining priorities for the fulfilment of lexicographic needs. Lexicographers have to be familiar with components like dictionary use, dictionary criticism, the history of dictionaries and a general theory of lexicography. The importance of planning and a sound training is emphasised. Training should not only be aimed at lexicographers but also at dictionary users. It is easier to achieve the meeting of lexicographic needs in an environment where a well-established dictionary culture exists.
Source: Lexikos 6, pp 184 –198 (1996)More Less
The paper focuses on the mutual relations between linguistics and lexicograph Against the background of etymology and comparative-historical linguistic studies and using , words 'lexical' and 'culture' as examples, an attempt is made to demonstrate the relevance of morphology, grammar and semantics to the descriptionption of vocabulary and its lexicographic codification. Issues of intra lingual variety and interlingual diversity can now also be addressed Within the theoretical framework of contrastive textology, supported by computer-aided parallel text corpus analysis. However, lexicography is not entirely dependent on the results of linguistic research; it needs to move on and develop its own theoretical base. Recent progress in four fields of dictionary research has indeed contributed to an international upsurge of 'lexical culture'.