Lexikos - Volume 6, Issue 6, 1996
Volumes & issues
Volume 6, Issue 6, 1996
Author Willy MartinSource: Lexikos 6, pp 199 –214 (1996)More Less
This article considers dictionaries as lexical infonnation / knowledge sources to be derived from a deeper, underlying, lexical database. These dictionary-tokens or -instantiations are inter alia specified by the users' needs. As a case in point of such a derivation meeting the needs of a multilingual society, a bidirectional bilingualleamer dictionary is presented. Specific tools, such as editors with reversal function, and models, such as the hub-and-spoke model, are discussed as means to function within the lexicographical infrastructure of a multilingual society.
Author N. E. OsseltonSource: Lexikos 6, pp 215 –232 (1996)More Less
Thomas Blount is unique among English compilers of the seventeenth century in systematically naming books and authors as evidence for the use of words entered in his dictionary. Such documentation of the vocabulary would now be associated with scholarly historical dictionaries such as the Johnson and the OED, rather than with a small dictionary for general use. In his Glossographia (1656) Blount differs from these by referring mainly to contemporary writings (and without giving quotations) and in being selective in his attestations, for about one in twenty of all entries. An analysis is presented of the types of words thus treated, and of the varied purposes served by his references to external sources: he sees the need to authenticate the less stable parts of the English vocabulary of his day - neolOgisms, exotic terms, semi-technical and learned words. Blount probably derived this lexicographical technique from the Latin dictionaries of his time. A century earlier than Dr Johnson, he confronted some of the same problems in justifying entries made in his dictionary, and produced different but equaIly valid answers to them.
Author Ilse FeinauerSource: Lexikos 6, pp 233 –271 (1996)More Less
Woordeboek'Dan die Afrikaanse Taal Volume IX. Volume nine of the woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAn is the first product of a completely new system used by the Bureau of the WAT: it is the first volume of the new chief editor, the editorial procedure was overhauled entirely, and WAT IX was the first volume to be produced fully by desktop publishing. This review article wants to investigate whether the new system really brought about lexicographical improvement as such. The general form and presentation of this dictionary are discussed., but the focal point of the article is the alphabetical part of the dictionary. The ways in which the latest lexicographic theory is embodied in WAT IX, as well as the extent to which WAT IX accommodates criticism on previous volumes are also discussed. Concerning form and presentation, WAT IX is improved to such an extent that it features as one of the most user-friendly Afrikaans descriptionptive dictionaries. Macrostructural gains in WAT IX are the extensive inclusion of sublexical and multi1exicallemmas, and the ordering of abbreviation lemmas. Microstructurally the lemmas are dealt with more thoroughly and a larger spectrum of linguistic information is included. Unfortunately the improvements are not applied consistently in WAT IX.
Author Albina R. ChuwaSource: Lexikos 6, pp 323 –329 (1996)More Less
Swahili dictionaries have been on the market since 1882. Most of these dictionaries were compiled by foreigners who were either missionaries or political administrators working in East Africa. Although the history of Swahili dictionary compilation seems to have survived a number of years, the field of lexicography is still a very new field in relation to what has been done by Tanzanians in this field. The first Swahili monolingual dictionary by a team of Tanzanian amateurs in dictionary compilation was published in 1981. Due to inexperience in the field of lexicography the compilers have been facing various kinds of problems arising either from the technical level (whereby solutions for such problems are beyond the dictionary compilers) or from the practical level (whereby solutions depend more on the working team). When the two levels intertwine it makes the work of the dictionary compilers even more difficult, thus requiring support from outside the team. The sample problems discussed in this paper, though not exhaustive, pose some difficulties to Swahili dictionary compilers. Among those problems are: 1. Fiscal constraints which force compilers to embrace a big user target, making the dictionary objectives too wide to address any group satisfactorily. 2 The choice of language (standard versus non-standard varieties) inhibits the expansion of existing vocabulary in Swahili dictionaries. 3. The identification of lemmas and their grammatical categories still requires special attention from Swahili grammarians and structuralists.
Author M. D. MageriaSource: Lexikos 6, pp 330 –337 (1996)More Less
This paper traces the historical development of lexicography in Kenya. Attempts are made to show that although Kenya's linguistic landscape boasts with about SO indigenous African languages, very little has been done in the field of compiling their dictionaries, especially by Kenyans themselves. Particular attention has been paid to the works done so far on the main African languages spoken in Kenya. It, is argued that in the past five years Kenyan scholars have started to take considerable notice of lexicography as an academic subject. I have briefly focused on the language situation in Kenya, Swahili lexicography, professional literature and seminars. It is proposed that more efforts need to be advanced, in updating the already existing dictionaries as well as venturing into specific genres of lexicography like dictionary criticism and dictionary use.