Lexikos - Volume 9, Issue 9, 1999
Volumes & issues
Volume 9, Issue 9, 1999
Author Ernst KotzeSource: Lexikos 9, pp 89 –107 (1999)More Less
In addition to the act of translation, transculturalisation and strategies of textuality come into playas interacting factors in the compilation of interlingual dictionaries. In this article, some conclusions resulting from a comparative survey of some South African dictionaries are drawn, specifically with regard to bi- and trilingual dictionaries in which Afrikaans, English, Japanese, Xhosa and Zulu combine as macrostructural components. After relating the act of translating in the various dictionaries to equivalence-based and descriptionptive theories of translation, the phenomenon of cultural transposition between lemma and translation equivalent is investigated. Starting with a brief characterisation of the dictionaries, the different perspectives and cultural biases vis-A-vis the ""other"" culture as reflected in the selection of lemmas and editorial examples are highlighted. In situating each instance of lexicographical contact, certain text linguistic principles are considered and applied to dictionary articles as units of discourse.
Author Phillip Adriaan LouwSource: Lexikos 9, pp 108 –118 (1999)More Less
The access structure is the primary guide structure in the central texts of any standard translation dictionary. The metalexicographical term ""guide structures"" refers to the set of structures that provides a framework within which the accessibility and availability of information types in the dictionary can be evaluated. The access structure is, however, not a singular entity. It includes certain substructures, of which the outer and inner access structures are the most important. In this article the status quo with regard to access structures in standard translation dictionaries with Afrikaans and English as treated language pair will be evaluated. Suggestions will then be made as to possible improvements. In the discussion of the outer access structure it is suggested that the rapid outer access structure be improved by using an elementary thumb index and that the current system of running heads be retained. For the standard outer access structure a better planned and motivated system of ordering homonyms, as welI as a more consistent initial alphabetical ordering is suggested. The focus in the discussion of the inner access structure will be on improving the rapid inner access structure by an innovative use of typographical and non-typographical structural markers. Better systems of ordering information subtypes within information categories are suggested as an innovation in the standard inner access structure. Broad guidelines are therefore given to improve dictionary accessibility and enhance userfriendliness through improved access structures.
Author S. Mdee, JamesSource: Lexikos 9, pp 119 –134 (1999)More Less
The paper discusses the role of the dictionary in standardizing the spelling of Swahili. The discussion begins by defining key terms in this paper: spelling and standardization of spelling. It surveys lexicons written in Swahili between 1811-1990 and records the efforts made to establish spelling conventions for Swahili words in Roman characters, pointing out variant spellings of words written by different authors. The paper focuses on the role played by different lexicons in setting orthography for Swahili 'words, viz. Steere (1870), Krapf (1882), Nettelbladt (1891), Madan (1903), Sacleux (1939), etc. It observes how the lexicons established nonns for words of a language which was hitherto not written in Roman characters. It also shows how lexicons helped to standardize the spelling of words to its current fonn especially after a standard dialect had been selected, pointing out lexicons which exclusively recorded words of the standard language with minimal variants. Finally the paper emphasizes the significance of the dictionary to adhere to the standard orthography.
Author Anna Nel. OttoSource: Lexikos 9, pp 135 –151 (1999)More Less
Criteria for an Afrikaans leamer's dictionary. This article detennines the theoretical and practical criteria for an Afrikaans learner's dictionary. The target users of this dictionary is black tertiary students for whom Afrikaans is a second or third language. Such a dictionary should be directed at the needs of the target users, i.e. be a suitable medium for both decoding and encoding. The compilation of the leamer's dictionary should chiefly be based upon real language use. This entails a thorough data collection which should contain adequate detail and is presented systematically. The selected infonnation should be understandable and easily retrievable. The dictionary should have an explanatory section. The recording of macrostructural elements should be linguistically motivated. The recording of specific macrostructural elements should be based on the needs of the target users and insights of the lexicographer with regard to interlingual aspects. As far as the microstructure is concerned, adequate pronunciation, grammatical, semantic and usage guidance should be provided.
Source: Lexikos 9, pp 152 –171 (1999)More Less
The Macquarie Dictionary, first published in Sydney in 1981, was intended to be the first comprehensive dictionary of Australian English. Now in its third edition it has been widely adopted by institutions and the general community as the national dictionary. This paper traces its development from a difficult birth to its present maturity, from a large set of cards to an electronic database, from a single book to a lexicographic library. The rationale and the methodology are laid out along with an account of the reception given to the dictionary in Australia and internationally.
Source: Lexikos 9, pp 172 –187 (1999)More Less
Vocabulary is an essential component of study, of reading and writing skills. At present, English is the primary language of tertiary education in South Africa, and this puts students from other language backgrounds at a disadvantage. The proposed dictionary will therefore be aimed at second language English users who are entry level students at university. It will be in four languages: English, Afrikaans, Zulu and Sepedi. I.S.P. Nation and J. Coady have compiled an academic core vocabulary which tertiary students in all subject fields need to master in order to be able to encode and decode tertiary level texts, and this has been the basis for the planned dictionary. However, this list needs to be compared to and updated with material from a South African academic corpus. A preliminary comparative study has been conducted on the basis of authentic South African data, and a revised list has been created. The dictionary will not be subject-specific, but will deal with a general sub technical vocabulary. Full definitions will be provided in all four languages, as well as translation equivalents, with English as the pivot language. Where a lexical gap occurs, translation equivalents will be coined with the help of the relevant experts. Thus the dictionary will also participate in much-needed corpus development of the African languages. It should become a valuable reference tool for both teacher and student.
Author Marietta AlbertsSource: Lexikos 9, pp 188 –197 (1999)More Less
This paper deals with the importance of a business plan when planning a lexicographical project. A business plan is an aspect of a lexicographical process most lexicographers would like to ignore. It is, however, an important step towards the establishment of a dictionary project. The compilation of a dictionary is a time-consuming process and a costly business, and proper planning is of the utmost importance, whether a dictionary project is undertaken by an individual or by a team of lexicographers. Therefore a business plan is the ideal tool for proper planning before embarking on a lexicographical project. It also gives stakeholders an indication of the scope of the envisaged lexicographical project. Financiers require a business plan to authorise the financing of a project, and this also applies to a lexicographical project. This paper deals with the importance of and reasons for a business plan. It also covers aspects such as drawing up a business plan as well as its contextual requirements.
Author D. J. Van SchalkwykSource: Lexikos 9, pp 198 –207 (1999)More Less
Source: Lexikos 9, pp 208 –257 (1999)More Less
On 12 April 1996 the State Language Services organized a language planning seminar, Lexicography as a Financial Asset in a Multi1ingual South Africa, held at the Bureau of the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal in Stellenbosch. A special feature of this workshop was the active participation not only of linguists and lexicographers involved in the academic and practical side of producing dictionaries, but also of those with commercial interests in this area, viz. publishers and marketers of dictionaries. An important part of the seminar was the contributions on the lexicographic needs of each of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. This seminar was followed by a consultative meeting for stakeholders arranged by the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB) on 31 October 1997 in Johannesburg. The purpose of the meeting was to explain to participants the state of the legislation concerning lexicography units, to inform participants of the language plan for the Republic of South Africa and the role of lexicography in it, to make participants aware of the preparation needed to establish a lexicography unit, and to obtain the view of participants regarding important lexicographic matters by means of a questionnaire and discussions.