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- Volume 10, Issue 1, 2011
Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Volume 10, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2011
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp V –IX (2011)More Less
Ten years has passed by since the first volume of the Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems was launched at the African Renaissance Conference, 2003. This bi-annual journal has taken us on a journey that has enabled us to explore the inter-disciplinary nature of Indigenous scholarship and the new learning opportunities that continue to become available as collaborations between academics and traditional knowledge holders grow. It has also seen Indilinga becoming recognised as a scientific output in the African academia and beyond. It has therefore taken indigenous scholarship into the mainstream of knowledge production and, above all, dissemination.
Qualitative elements constituting effective agricultural cooperatives among rural smallscale farmersSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 1 –16 (2011)More Less
Agricultural cooperatives like all cooperatives are built on the principle of cooperation and community spirit, also known as ubuntu. They are widely promoted as a positive force for collective effort in smallholder agriculture development. However, research suggests that they generally have not been effective and successful in the South African agricultural small-scale farming context warranting an investigation into this area. Therefore, based on the literature search, an agricultural cooperative effectiveness analysis framework was crafted based on objective, operational and marketing information. The analyses found that the cooperatives generally fell in the South African government's set objectives for cooperatives. However, the analysis framework revealed that they were largely ineffective because of a number of factors. The objectives and activities of the farmers were found to be hampered by internal factors that included low capabilities of the cooperative to mobilise and utilise their limited resources, and low capabilities for management of institutional arrangements. Further, lack of external support such as finding, education and extension services were also contributing to the ineffectiveness of the cooperatives. Apart from the small land holding limiting farmers' expansion to meet the high produce demand, the land tenure system legally prohibited the farmers from using the land as collateral for obtaining loans from funding institutions. Therefore, there was serious under capitalisation issues within the cooperatives leading to the aforesaid ineffectiveness. Therefore, improving on the internal factors, such as pooling resources, putting in place legal frameworks governing the cooperatives and improving communication lines were suggested as ingredients to effective cooperatives. External support in the form of funding, improvements in the infrastructure, access to farmer education and information and favourable land tenure by governments were suggested as necessary for effectiveness of the agricultural cooperatives.
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 17 –37 (2011)More Less
In South Africa, malnutrition and poverty often co-exist with urbanization, which is associated with significant dietary change mostly due to neglect of indigenous foods and loss of indigenous knowledge. The article is based on a study that was aimed at assessing the availability, cultivation, consumption and general knowledge about indigenous plant foods in rural and urban communities. A comparative study was conducted in rural and urban populations of the North West Province of South Africa. Data were collected using a questionnaire (n=396 households), key informant interviews (n=4) and four focus groups. The rural area had more plant food available and consumed than the urban area, and fewer species were used as edible food material than expected. Consumers noted a decline in the availability of the species. The main reasons attributed to this decline were insufficient rainfall, poor soil quality, deforestation and over harvesting. Consumption of indigenous foods was influenced by price, culture, seasonality/availability, accessibility and diversity in markets. The elderly were more knowledgeable compared to the younger age groups and knowledge was widely distributed in rural areas. The study revealed that there was no cultivation of indigenous crops in the urban areas. In the rural areas, cultivation of indigenous crops was limited to a number of species and restricted to household consumption.
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 38 –52 (2011)More Less
The approach of this article is on energy healing as holistic, contextual and essentially psychological. In order to explicate common themes, various indigenous patterns of energy healing in Africa, India and China are examined. Core themes that emerge include views of the universe as an interrelated whole, of illness as a disruption or stagnation of energy patterns, which need continual harmonisation for optimal health, and of a universal energy to which everyone has access, particularly via breathing and meditation techniques. Other themes include universal healing patterns such as dialogue, spirituality, shared worldview, communal context, cultural compatibility, common expectations, emotional arousal, information exchange, various healing approaches, resources, methods and techniques, individual, familial and social learning and change.
Author Alida HerbstSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 53 –67 (2011)More Less
This article focuses on a qualitative exploration of six core values embedded in the Choose Life Training Programme (CLTP), a value-based HIV and AIDS prevention programme. The article is based on a study that explored the possibility that the African interpretations of these values are different to the Western definitions. Currently the CLTP study material is available in English only and much of the inherent meaning of the programme may be lost in translation to African participants. Existing data from the monitoring and evaluation of the CLTP was analyzed by means of secondary analysis in an attempt to explore the African interpretations of the core values.
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 68 –76 (2011)More Less
This article is based on research that focussed on the documentation and the validation of indigenous knowledge on the use of the Dwarf Sage plant in Namibia. The purpose of the study was four-fold: (a) to conduct a systematic recording of the body of indigenous knowledge of the Dwarf Sage; (b) to record and document the use of the Dwarf Sage; (c) to document the types of diseases that can be treated with the Dwarf Sage; and (d) to validate the healing properties of the Dwarf Sage.
Interviews were conducted with thirteen respondents belonging to two categories: practitioners (those who use the Dwarf Sage for treating patients) and beneficiaries (those who were treated with the Dwarf Sage). In addition to the interview information, the Dwarf Sage plant was submitted to the analytic laboratory to determine trace elements that could potentially play a role in wound healing.
The findings revealed that knowledge of the Dwarf Sage plant had been obtained through observation and informal apprenticeship training. All respondents in the two categories: IKS practitioners and the beneficiaries from the Dwarf Sage reported that the plant is used to treat wounds known as Shingles. The results of the laboratory analysis found seven trace elements namely, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic and selenium. The elements that directly play a role in wound healing are copper and zinc; however, it was made known that the other elements complement their efforts in the rapid healing of wounds.
Author Johannes SerotoSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 77 –88 (2011)More Less
Prior to the arrival of European settlers in the Cape Colony in 1652, formal and informal educational practices through the transmission of indigenous knowledge from adult to child had long been in existence among the Khoi, the San and the Bantu-speaking people of Southern Africa. The African child was brought up by the community and educated in the culture and traditions of the community. The curriculum of indigenous education during the pre-colonial period consisted of traditions, legends and tales and the procedures and knowledge associated with rituals which were handed down orally from generation to generation within each tribe. This process was intimately integrated with the social, cultural, artistic, religious and recreational life of the indigenous peoples. This article discusses different forms of indigenous education that existed in Southern Africa during the pre-colonial period.
Author Y. NompulaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 89 –97 (2011)More Less
This article explores the role and value of indigenous songs in education. The article draws from a study of grade five learners from a school in the Eastern Cape. The study was designed to answer the question; could Xhosa children in South Africa sing Xhosa indigenous songs significantly better than European folk songs. The experimental group received instruction of Xhosa indigenous songs accompanied by indigenous instruments. The control group received instruction in European folk song singing accompanied by Orff instruments. Instruction included traditional dancing, antiphonal singing technique and improvisation.
The results of the study suggest that the Xhosa children sing the indigenous repertoire expressively and significantly better than the European songs. In this article I argue for the inclusion of indigenous songs in Arts and Culture Curricula.
The intention of this article is not to replace the existing European music and its instructional methodology that currently exist and prevail music curricula today. The primary focus is to add other meaningful pedagogical instructions through African indigenous music and dance that has been relegated for centuries in South African school.
Author Mario Suarte BaloSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 98 –114 (2011)More Less
The article is based on a study that describes the knowledge and techniques of construction of mbila (singular of timbila in the chopi language). The study paid special attention to the search for knowledge and the ideas that makers have on the mbila. The mbila is known today, in its modern version, as the xylophone.
As the main aspects of the study was devoted to the implicit knowledge (occult, not conceptualized) about the construction and tuning of mbila, several measurements of the dimensions of the various types of timbila have been made to improve the description in terms of constitution and functioning. A brief review is also made on the choreography of the festival of timbila.
Author Gilbert MotsaathebeSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10, pp 115 –127 (2011)More Less
Major publishers in many parts of Africa are conspicuous by their reluctance to publish in indigenous African languages. Many of these publishers cite lack of readership in indigenous languages as a reason for this move which is frustrating efforts at indigenisation and domestication and increase dependency on foreign languages, notably English. This article explores book publishing in indigenous languages in South Africa and exemplifies pertinent issues inherent in the multilingual country where English has remained a dominant discourse at the expense of indigenous languages which have largely remained under utilised as media of instruction and public discourse. It is argued in this article that this under utilisation impacts directly on book publishing in indigenous languages as it leads to a shrinking market for publishers. It is posited further that, since language is a key feature of culture which also enables access to indigenous wisdom especially in the context of Africa, it can be concluded that the cultural legacy of many indigenous African communities is under threat.