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- Volume 13, Issue 1, 2014
Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Volume 13, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 13, Issue 1, 2014
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp V –VIII (2014)More Less
This thirteenth volume of Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems continues to adhere to its legacy of critical analysis of indigenous knowledge systems. When looking for the golden thread for this current issue it became clear that indigenous knowledge systems is life itself - the issue covers articles that discuss love, courtship and romance to education, entrepreneurship, food, health, tourism, social networks, skills development and agriculture.
Author Ntandoni G. BiyelaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 1 –10 (2014)More Less
In traditional Zulu society, the national ukweshwama (annual ceremony of the first fresh produce) was celebrated in January. The izinsizwa (unmarried young men) had to abstain from sexual relationships in order to prepare with undivided hearts and minds for this ritual, in which they had to take lead roles, such as offering the sacrificial bull. During the festival, the king would grant courtship freedom to the youth regiments of both genders of marriageable age. This article associates the celebration of giving 'love-beads' to loved ones with uNhlolanja (February) in the beginning of what is, traditionally a month of relaxation and abundant fresh produce. Beaded messages in red and white colours also dominated the February courtship milieu, which this article calls a traditional 'Zulu Valentine'. The Zulu name of February is also traditionally linked to the mating of dogs, suggesting that, in traditional Zulu society, February was a 'love in the air' month not only for humans. Based on first-hand interviews with local informants of KwaZulu-Natal, the present investigation attempted to examine the as yet insufficiently explored deeper meaning of indigenous beads called imibambanhliziyo (heart-holders) through which Zulu girls of yesteryear communicated their experiences, anxieties and attitudes to promote better relationships with their romantic partners, after ukweshwama abstinences.
Successful access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa through ubuntu : the student voiceAuthor Suria GovenderSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 11 –27 (2014)More Less
This article assesses whether access programmes are a productive method of identifying potentially successful students in the Higher Education sector in South Africa. It presents the voices of successful students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, who did not go directly into the mainstream programme but had to commence university education through an access programme. The interest of this investigation lies in the area of the broader academic and social discourses that they, as successful access students, inhabit and through which they produce and perform their success in undergraduate studies. The philosophy of Ubuntu and its relationship to epistemological access, the role of agency and self-regulation and student-institution reciprocity are examined using an adaptation of Tinto's student integration model as a starting point.
Towards an argumentative dialogue between local knowledge and official school curriculum : a case of local curriculum in MozambiqueSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 28 –40 (2014)More Less
The article explores to which extent, through the inclusion of the local knowledge in Mozambican curriculum, a space of an argumentative dialogue between local and modern knowledge was institutionalized. It is argued that the local curriculum is not only a space for the integration of both kinds of knowledge, values and practices, but potentially it is a space of negotiation, evaluation and validation of both. In other words the article explores the hypothesis of the local curriculum being a space for the appropriation and reappropriation of both kinds of knowledge, that is, the space where the "silent coexistence" will be transformed into an "argumentative dialogue" between local and modern knowledge.
Some reflections on two rural potter's cooperatives in the Port St Johns region of the Eastern Cape, South AfricaAuthor John SteeleSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 41 –50 (2014)More Less
Two potters in the Port St Johns region of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa have been founder members of different visual arts producer's cooperatives during the 1980s as part of development initiatives aimed at sustainable economic empowerment. These potters are Debora Nomathamsanqa Ntloya of Qhaka village in the Caguba area and Alice Gqa Nongebeza of Nkonxeni village in the Tombo area. They both engaged in zero electricity, using ceramics praxis and used variants of open bonfiring techniques to finish off their works. This article looks at aspects of formation and administration of such potter's cooperatives, as well as at types of ceramics technology used and resulting works, and also at some marketing strategies and outcomes. It will be seen that these are factors that impact directly on why some such cooperatives are successful for long stretches of time, and others become defunct or dormant. Furthermore, Debora Nomathamsanqa Ntloya is now largely retired from clayworking, and Alice Gqa Nongebeza passed away in 2012, so a question arises as to whether their ceramic traditions will be continued in the years to come.
Poverty eradication project on indigenous agro food processing in Molemole Local Municipality of Limpopo Province, South AfricaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 51 –62 (2014)More Less
This article highlights the importance of skills development and training for empowering the unemployed men, women and youth in entrepreneurial activities, based on experience gained from the Molemole Indigenous Food Processing Cooperative (MIFPC), established in 2006 in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The establishment of this cooperative was propelled by the high abundance of indigenous prickly pears and marula wild fruits which are utilised for commercial purposes. The objective is to improve people's livelihood in the area which is characterised by high rates of unemployment, semiskilled labourers, especially among the youth and young parents. The MIFPC establishment is also in accordance with the policy on recognition and promotion of indigenous knowledge systems launched by the Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The policy emphasizes the use of people centred pedagogy as it maximises locally available skills, and empower the poor to learn by themselves. The MIFPC consists of eight women and two men and produces marula jelly, prickly pear jam, juice and peanut butter. The participants have high commitment for self enhancement to an extent that they get orders from government, private sector and local community members for their products. The project's establishment has encouraged entrepreneurial skills development which is seen as the creator of wealth, capital and large organisational empires for poverty eradication in the area.
An ethnobotanical survey of wild vegetables in the Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province, South AfricaAuthor T.N. Kwinana-MandindiSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 63 –83 (2014)More Less
As the world population is increasing, there is a need to diversify food plant resource in order to fulfil the growing demand for both nutritional and health care needs. This includes diversification of crops and crop varieties. Sustenance, genetic resource management and use of agrobiodiversity depend intensely on the extensive indigenous knowledge systems. This article, therefore, presents an inventory of the wild plants used as food as well as their socio-cultural profile, namely: vernacular names, their utility by the local communities with respect to the part of the plant consumed, frequency of consumption, mode of preparation, form of consumption and seasonal abundance.
An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous wild leafy vegetables (IWLV) was carried out in ten villages and five peri-urban settlements in the Amathole District within the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Samples of these plants were identified and collected in the presence of the informants. During a workshop with key informants application of triangulation-validation technique was done to ensure validation and verification of the data.
A total of 25 different IWLV species belonging to 16 families were identified and recorded. Nine edible plants were identified as frequently consumed. While it was evident in some communities that edible plants still play an important role, however, in other communities only few utilise the wild vegetables. Knowledge impartation of the plants to the youth tends to be lacking yet, the freely available resource is generally essential for all communities, particularly the growing and poorly resourced ones.
Tourism-related skills development practices for the disadvantaged indigenous communities in the Umhlathuze Municipal areaAuthor Lindisizwe M. MagiSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 84 –105 (2014)More Less
The South African tourism industry has been previously seen as a field of human activity dominated by the elite and affluent in South Africa. The previously disadvantaged indigenous communities (PDICs) have not benefited significantly from this industry and have even designated it as the "white man's activity" (DEAT, 1996: 14). In an attempt to reverse this situation, the government has designed a variety of new tourism policies and strategies that seek to redress the imbalances of the past. The notion of skills development and related practices was specifically seen as a potential area within which participation in tourism as a human activity could be improved for the PDICs. This article seeks to report on the theoretical framework, analysis of data and related findings pertaining to the status of tourism skills development practices for the PDICs in the uMhlathuze Local Municipality. The main objectives of this article are to: explore how stakeholders understand the importance of tourism skills development practices; show how the uMhlathuze authorities attempt to facilitate tourism skills development practices; reveal respondents' perceptions of the implementation of the tourism skills development policies and practices; establish whether there are any tourism skills development practice-benefits for the PDICs in the area. The article advocates, that in order for tourism strategies to succeed, there is need for local indigenous communities be empowered with tourism skills and practices they can relate to.
The findings of the article suggest that the majority of respondents understand the meaning and importance of tourism and tourism skills development practices within the uMhlathuze municipal area. The respondents also felt that the skills development opportunities were inaccessible in the area, as well as that the provision of tourism skills was inadequate. The findings also show that the implementation of tourism skills development practices were poorly executed as well as not adequately benefiting the local indigenous communities.
Author Jean ShangeSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 106 –125 (2014)More Less
The improved participation of rural women in development opportunities continues to be a challenge facing many rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. This has led researchers to probe into elements within the rural social structure that may or may not possibly be influential with regard to rural socio-economic development. Recent writings on indigenous knowledge systems question the value of framing development planning in terms of the traditional knowledge and skills of indigenous people. Such thinking has brought about the notion of using indigenous knowledge as a significant resource, which could contribute to the increased participation of indigenous communities in the development process. While this article supports the integration of indigenous knowledge and skills for development, it proposes that a deeper understanding of indigenous culture and history of indigenous people is an integral component, which could improve and aid effective development. Specifically, this article suggests that an in-depth understanding and integration of culture, gender and HIV/AIDS issues in development efforts to empower rural women, could be a possible alternative development method, primarily in engaging with the economic marketplace.
Prevalence of use of indigenous social networks among women and girl children in a rural community in KwaZulu-NatalSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 126 –139 (2014)More Less
Women and girl children regard indigenous social networks as important in their lives as they facilitate speedy awareness and announcements of urgent issues and sharing and transfer of information, knowledge and skills. In other words, they may also assist people to be conversant with what is happening around them. The article is based on the study that is informed by the feminist theory to establish the use of indigenous social networks among women and girl children in the Mfekayi community, KwaZulu-Natal. The focus of the study was on indigenous social networks' practices, tools, effects and relevance. Face-to-face interviews and observations were used to collect qualitative data from a purposive sample of 63 participants. The findings indicate that although the modern social networks are extensively used for information and knowledge sharing and transfer, due to the advancements brought by the modern information and communication technologies, indigenous social networks remain rooted and highly regarded in some indigenous communities such as Mfekayi, especially among women and girl children. However, it is also noted that modern social networks are making aggressive inroads forcing the indigenous social networks to take a back seat. It is recommended that indigenous social networks should be extensively promoted among women and girl children as they revive the spirit of communalism and togetherness, transfer information, knowledge and skills, sharpen the minds, and support physical training and fitness, as opposed to modern social networks which promote individualism and isolation.
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 140 –152 (2014)More Less
By taking into account gender differences through which social capital is formed and operates, the article is based on the study that examines how indigenous social capital influences and impacts on women led businesses in rural Zimbabwe. It revealed that in indigenous settings, the notion of social capital is a gendered concept with critical implications on women led businesses in rural Zimbabwe. The study recognized social capital as generated and expressed through indigenous knowledge and values, network and associational life and hence indigenous knowledge. It acknowledged that social capital does take gender differentiated forms while exerting gender specific expectations on the network participation of men and women. In exploring the outcomes of social capital for the women led businesses, the study looked into the ways that gender ideologies run through, are reinforced and perpetuated through social network activity and supported through circumscribed indigenous knowledge. The emphasis made in this study on social capital does not downplay the importance of other factors like human, financial, physical and natural capital on women owned rural small businesses. Social capital is in fact seen as an essential compliment to these factors. The advantage of addressing the subject of women led rural based businesses from a social capital perspective largely stems from the ability of social capital to account for indigenous knowledge in development discourse.
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 153 –163 (2014)More Less
Southern African countries have similar climatic and agricultural conditions, with 70% of agricultural land suitable for extensive livestock farming. The article is based on the review that assesses the potential for organic beef production for communal farming systems. The findings reveal that consumers' perceptions of organic beef are based on the production processes. The literature shows a growing concern and controversy regarding the health, safety and environmental benefits of conventional and organic beef production. Communal farmers rear almost 50% of indigenous and adaptable breeds such as the Nguni which have proven their hardiness and adaptability through heat tolerance, improved calving rates, efficient utilization of feed resources, disease and parasite tolerance. Nguni cattle have a lower sero-prevalence for A. marginale and B. bigemina in both the cool-dry and hot-wet seasons. Consumers perceive organic beef as healthier and safer than conventional beef, and are willing to pay a premium. Civic engagement amongst all stakeholders through efficient management of indigenous knowledge systems and science is required for establishing organic beef niche market.
The rural-urban linkage in the use of traditional foods by peri-urban households in Nompumelelo community in East London, Eastern CapeAuthor Vikelwa Judith MajovaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 13, pp 164 –174 (2014)More Less
The article is based on the study that explored ways of reducing malnutrition amongst the inhabitants of South Africa through traditional foods. Traditional foods have been identified as one of the strategies that can be employed to lessen the problem in the community of Nompumelelo, in the Eastern Cape Province, and the research involved the availability of traditional foods in the area. It is common practice for most rural people in South Africa to include traditional foods in their diets and Nompumelelo is no exception. Hence, the study also explored the rural-urban linkage of the use of traditional foods by peri-urban households in the Xhosa community of Nompumelelo. From the empirical results it was established that the traditional foods, mainly leafy vegetables, produced in this community are accessible to the whole community, resulting in greater food sustainability. It is a fact that many communities are of the opinion that food is not readily available, not realising that traditional foods are locally available.