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- Volume 14, Issue 2, 2015
Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Volume 14, Issue 2, 2015
Volume 14, Issue 2, 2015
Towards a cartography of indigenous knowledge systems in library and information science training and education in Anglophone eastern and southern AfricaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 145 –168 (2015)More Less
The focus of this article is on mapping the inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) content in the higher education curriculum of universities that offer library and information science (LIS) education in Anglophone eastern and southern Africa (AESA). As universities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are being encouraged to "adapt" and to become more "societally relevant" in their production, transmission and acquisition of knowledge, they should include hitherto subjugated IKS. The main argument is that the inclusion of indigenous knowledge (IK), with its emphasis on context and the holistic nature of human experiences, in higher education may partly offer knowledge that resonates with Bernstein's (2000) horizontal discourses and Dewey's (2004) notion of education that addresses the disposition of the learner holistically. Although some studies on higher education curricula have focused on a diversity of issues, including improved pedagogy, assessment strategies, low achievement, student throughput, content, institutional autonomy and public accountability (Bester, 2011), the scope of this article is limited to the content aspect of the curriculum. Content is at the centre of the relevance of a curriculum in a specific context. A meaningful coverage of IK content in the curriculum may equip information and heritage management professionals with skills and knowledge to preserve the declining IK and elevate it to a respectable level in Africa. The results of this quantitative study confirm that the end of foreign domination in AESA did not bring about a new cartography in the LIS curricula of the universities, as colonial pedagogic practices that undervalued IK have continued to dominate the higher education landscape at the expense of the inclusion of IK.
An analysis of the depiction of indigenous people during the early colonial conquest in South African history textbooksAuthor Johannes SerotoSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 169 –184 (2015)More Less
In this article, I examine the construction of knowledge about the representation of indigenous people in Grade 10 South African history textbooks. I illustrate and unearth the ways whereby power relations during the early colonial conquest were situated, maintained, reproduced and transmitted in specific social, historical and political contexts. To achieve this aim, the article focuses on the knowledge that is constructed by the authors of the history textbooks; the perspectives valued in the construction of the history textbooks; and the authors' location and understanding of power relations in the context of the early settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. Critical analysis discourse method is used to critique the selected textbooks.
The Lambas of the copper belt/Zambia's behaviours and taboos 'before colonisation and Christianisation' : a literature review to accommodate research in the indigenous realmAuthor Rosemary KalengaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 185 –194 (2015)More Less
This article is a literature review of the Lambas' (AŴalamba) behaviours and taboos as documented before colonisation and Christianisation, from the diary of Joseph Doke, who died in Lambaland (IlamŴa) in 1913. The diary was published in 1931 by his son Clement Martyn Doke. The aim of this article is to examine the ways of living of the Lambas before colonisation and Christianisation, in order to promote mental liberation from a world where we study only Western knowledge. The analysis is done through the lens of theories of Sacralisation, 'umuchinshi' - Polite Behaviour and Indigenous Knowledge Systems. The concludes that mental liberation for Africans may only be achieved if we take deliberate steps to study and embrace the wisdom of our forefathers. The recommendations are that despite living in modern society, the knowledge of our forefathers should not be forgotten. Lessons of life originate from their generations of tested and proven ways of harmonious living, socially and environmentally sustainable.
The potential of crossbreeding indigenous chickens to improve rural food security and nutrition in southern Africa - a reviewSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 195 –209 (2015)More Less
The need to increase poultry production in southern Africa to meet the increasing protein requirement of the growing population is becoming a great concern. The quality of poultry meat and eggs produced in terms of taste, texture, flavour and leanness are of importance to consumers. Crossbreeding indigenous with exotic strains of chickens is one of the main factors that can improve food and nutrition security in southern Africa. In this article, ways in which the quality and quantity of poultry meat and eggs can be improved for sustainable food and nutrition security in southern Africa, with emphasis on crossbreeding as a prospective food security (protein) stability technique are discussed. This article is based on critical analysis of the literature and discusses and evaluates various crossbreeding methods of chickens that have been carried out in African countries. Comparative studies on the implementation, failures and successes of crossbreeding of chickens in African countries, such as Egypt, Botswana, Malawi and South Africa among others are reviewed. Crossbreeding, combined with selection, information dissemination, improved management and technology, is recommended for the geometric increase in poultry meat and egg production in southern Africa to improve food and nutrition security.
"Badimo ba fihlile mošomong" - is there a place for cultural ethos and practices at the workplace? African cultural practices and beliefs revisitedAuthor Matome M. RatibaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 210 –221 (2015)More Less
This article seeks to interrogate and explore whether African ethos and practices have a place at the workplace, more especially in the light of the recent decision in Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Mmoledi and Others. Practices and/or beliefs having a bearing on only three contextual cultural issues or concepts are isolated for this purpose and dealt with in the context of absence from the workplace. The applicable cultural issues in question are cultural and spiritual ailments, family responsibilities and ancestral callings, all of which are reviewed within the broader milieu of culture in the workplace. The article conforms to the following set structural format. Following the introduction, the second part lays the theoretical framework or background to the discussion in which attempt is made in the definition, unpacking and explanation of common cultural practices under discussion. The third part will explain the relevance of those common cultural practices to the workplace. In the fourth part a summary of the current case of Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Mmoledi and Others and the impact thereof are presented. The last part will be constituted by concluding remarks.
Effect of indigenous knowledge system based sun drying on the microbiological quality and safety of egg powdersSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 222 –232 (2015)More Less
Although eggs have been successfully dried into powder at industrial level no evidence is available that sun drying or oven drying has been tried on eggs in the rural areas. This article is based on the study, which was conducted in the rural areas of Impendle in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, determined the level of egg utilisation and the microbiological quality and safety of sun-dried eggs. A sample of eggs was oven-dried at 65°C over a period of three hours. Another sample was sun-dried over a period of 72 hours. The dried egg samples were subjected to microbiological analysis: Salmonella spp., E. coli, Coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes and Total Plate Count. A high percentage (87%) of the survey respondents owned egg laying chickens. About 81% of the respondents indicated that eggs were consumed by the whole family about three times per week. Microbiological analysis results indicated that both egg powder samples had acceptable total microbial load and pathogenic (harmful) micro-organisms were absent. When observed over a period of eight weeks, both sun-dried and oven-dried eggs developed a rancid flavour. The study demonstrated the potential for processing eggs into egg powder in rural areas to improve household food security.
Pedi psychologists' perceptions of working with mental illness in the Pedi community in Limpopo, South Africa : the need to incorporate indigenous knowledge in diagnosis and treatmentSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 233 –247 (2015)More Less
Mental illness is conceptualised differently across cultural and religious groups. Perceptions of mental illness that are held in communities play a role in the treatment sought and the response to treatment offered. Psychologists from these communities who work in the community are well positioned to provide insight into the perceptions of mental illness as well as the issues involved in working within their communities. A convenience sample of nine Pedi psychologists practising in the Sekhukhune and Capricorn districts of Limpopo, South Africa were interviewed about their work with members of the Pedi community as a means of exploring perceptions of mental illness and its' associated challenges and opportunities in the Pedi community. Semi structured interviews were conducted at the practitioners' rooms with each interview lasting approximately one hour. Thematic analysis of the results revealed four themes. These were: psychologists' perceptions of mental illness; conducting psychotherapy with clients who have spiritual or cultural beliefs of illness; perceptions of mental illness in the Pedi community; and the limited understanding of mental health services in the Pedi community. It is evident from the results that mental illness in the Pedi community is conceptualised differently to mainstream conceptualisations. There is therefore a need for culturally competent practitioners to work in communities holding cultural and religious beliefs in relation to mental illness in order for treatment to be successful. The perceptions of mental illness held by the Pedi community influences the type of treatment sought, with the choice of treatment often being traditional healing. Aside from cultural beliefs which makes traditional healing the first option for treatment, socio economic status and the cost of health care were also highlighted for the preference of traditional healing.
Author Blessing MbathaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 248 –261 (2015)More Less
The aim of this article is to shed light on patterns of, and major motives for the utilisation of traditional medicine to fight the spread of HIV and AIDS in South Africa. This study was conducted in Soshanguve township in Gauteng. A qualitative approach was adopted by conducting focus group interviews with fifty-seven traditional healers. Data was analysed using axial coding and open coding, where dominant themes from the discussions were identified and discussed in detail. The findings depict that traditional healing is a deep-seated practice. In addition, the study established that the foremost motives for choosing traditional healers over biomedical practitioners were affordability of the services rendered by traditional healers and the efficacy and safety of traditional medicines. It is worth noting that the African continent, as the worst-ravaged region in terms of HIV and AIDS and the poorest in terms of modern health care resources, is an obvious site for collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health care providers.
A survey of farming practices and cassava pests and diseases : a case study for Mseleni Village, KwaZulu-Natal in South AfricaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 262 –271 (2015)More Less
Although cassava is one of the staple food crops in Africa, it is cultivated mainly by subsistence producers in South Africa. Production is constrained by a number of agronomic, biological, environmental and socio-economic factors responsible for yield reduction. A study was conducted from May to August 2006 to evaluate cultural practices applied in cassava production and to evaluate the prevalence of pests and diseases on cassava at Mseleni village. A semi-structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data. Almost 80% of the farmers, both male and female, were randomly selected to take part in the survey. Results from the survey revealed that there was no application of commercial inputs (fertilizers or pesticides) used in the production process of cassava. Other important production constraints in cassava production were pests and diseases. It was established that 91% of farmers in the village did not control pests in their cassava at all, while 9% indicated that they used household remedies. Generally, cultural practices which are fundamental and crucial in cassava production were not properly executed and these had a significant negative impact on cassava total yield. In order to improve cassava yield in the village, it is recommended that practices such as incorporating green manures in the soil, application of fertilizers and the use of disease-free planting material, be adopted.
Author Steve EdwardsSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 272 –283 (2015)More Less
The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) conducts pioneering research into interconnectedness in order to promote global coherence, consciousness and health through heart-focused care (Institute of HeartMath, 2013). A global network of ultrasensitive magnetic field detectors are being installed strategically around the planet, one of which is established on a private game reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, which provides various local research opportunities. Southern African indigenous knowledge themes on interconnectedness are discussed in order to provide a relevant, local and conceptual grounding for the initiative. As this knowledge is invested with human spirituality, communality, mutuality and other local meaning, the presentation speaks of relationships. Although certain themes have been singled out for instructional purposes in this presentation, as local indigenous knowledge represents a coherent whole that is continuously changing. These themes should be considered from an integrative and transformational perspective.
Author Queeneth N. MkabelaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 14, pp 284 –291 (2015)More Less
The question of how researchers work with and select research methods is complex. For researchers researching African indigenous culture, the complexity takes specific forms, usually forms that are embedded within the values and beliefs of research participants and their indigenous communities. In order to honour, indigenous methodologies, researchers need to approach cultural protocols, values and behaviours as an integral part of methodology. Methodological challenges that may be faced by researchers are those associated with acceptable scholarly psychological research, from within a specific discipline as well as from within the particular indigenous community. The article intends to highlight ubuntu (African philosophy of life) as a foundation for an African centred, indigenous psychology, research method carried out by indigenous researchers working from or within indigenous communities.