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- Volume 4, Issue 1, 2005
Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Volume 4, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 4, Issue 1, 2005
Author Mosibudi MangenaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4 (2005)More Less
The Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Policy is an enabling framework to stimulate and strengthen the contribution of indigenous knowledge to social and economic development in South Africa. The main IKS Policy drivers in the South African context include: <ul> <li>The affirmation of African cultural values in the face of globalisation - a clear imperative given the need to promote a positive African identity; </li> <li>Practical measures for the development of services provided by IK holders and practitioners, with a particular focus on traditional medicine, but also including areas such as agriculture, indigenous languages and folklore; </li> <li>Underpinning the contribution of indigenous knowledge to the economy - the role of indigenous knowledge in employment and wealth creation; and</li> <li>Interfaces with other knowledge systems, for example indigenous knowledge is used together with modern biotechnology in the pharmaceutical and other sectors to increase the rate of innovation. </li> </ul> To implement this policy, the following functions, institutions and legislative provisions will be required: <ul> <li> An Advisory Committee on Indigenous Knowledge Systems, reporting to the Minister of Science and Technology; </li> <li>A development function; including, academic and applied research, development and innovation in respect of IKS; </li> <li>A recordal system for indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge holders; where appropriate, to pro-actively secure their legal rights; </li> <li>The promotion of networking structures among practitioners, to be located in the Department of Science and Technology; and</li> <li>Legislation to protect intellectual property associated with indigenous knowledge, to be administered by the Department of Trade and Industry. </li></ul>
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp VII –XIII (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... vii INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE INTRODUCTION Philip J. Nel Director, Africa Studies, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein email@example.com A Colloquium on Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) was held at the University of the Free State from 28 February to 3 March 2004 with the financial support of the National Research Foundation. This publication is made possible by NRF support as well as the financial support of the Department of Science and Technology, the important role of which is to coordinate national efforts focusing on IKS development. The financial support of both institutions is acknowledged with appreciation ..
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 2 –14 (2005)More Less
The article explores the contested area of indigenous knowledge rhetoric in South Africa, in particular with reference to the Western science-Indigenous Knowledge antithesis and the input Indigenous Knowledge may have on development. The validity of differences is not questioned, but rather the simplification with which the antithesis and its treatise are handled without due respect for the epistemes underlying the two positions. A postcolonial critical perspective is introduced to indicate the absolutisms on both sides and the ten-dency towards cultural and historical fixities. An attempt is also made to locate the border space of Indigenous Knowledge inquiry amidst present realities without becoming prone to new imbued epistemological fixities.
Author Mogomme MasogaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 15 –30 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 15 SOUTH AFRICAN RESEARCH IN INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND CHALLENGES OF CHANGE3 Dr Mogomme Masoga4 iIKSSA Trust, Pretoria MoAfrika@iIKSSA.org.za INTRODUCTION South Africa has progressed in terms of indigenous knowledge activities, including advocacy, awareness, research and so forth. The extent of this progress remains to be seen. Dr Mongane Serote, fondly referred to as the 'father' of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS), contributed considerably to the IKS domain in South Africa. Consider his earlier, positive attempts as chairperson for the Arts, Culture, Science and Technology portfolio committee ten years back. As part of this contribution the country was proud to witness, ..
National priorities in Indigenous Knowledge Systems : implications for research and curriculum developmentAuthor Mogege MosimegeSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 31 –37 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 31 NATIONAL PRIORITIES IN INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Mogege Mosimege Indigenous Knowledge Systems Unit, Department of Science and Technology, Pretoria, South Africa Mogege.firstname.lastname@example.org UPDATE ON IKS POLICY It is important that the participants in the recent IKS Colloquium be updated on the latest developments relating to the IKS policy. Others are interested in these developments as the provisions thereof impact on their work, especially in respect of how they access the knowledge and share benefits with the holders of knowledge. Those who have been closely associated with the development of the IKS policy will ..
Author Gayatri C. SpivakSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 38 –45 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 38 IKS AND GLOBALISATION1 Gayatri C. Spivak Columbia University I think there is a degree of impertinence in speaking about IKS in South Africa, which I hope the indigenous people will forgive with indulgence. I know that such people are in fact in the habit of forgiving with indulgence, so I allow myself to go forth. I have been teaching at Columbia for 14 years, and have trained teachers for 15 years, slightly longer than my years of service at Columbia, in what we call the original inhabitant areas in Western West Bengal. There are 13 schools and a ..
Author Fritz WallnerSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 46 –54 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 46 INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND WESTERN SCIENCE: CONTRADICTION OR COOPERATION1 Prof. Mag. Dr Fritz Wallner Department of Philosophy, Vienna University and Mag. Michael Weiss (Edit.) AFRICAN SCIENCE NEEDS AN EPISTEMOLOGY What are the main ideas that must be taken into account when considering or dealing with African science? If we were to ask what should be the result of our considerations and work on epistemology, we should take into account four aspects. One aspect is that such an epistemology must offer the possibility for an African science. It must show how and why an African science is possible. This is ..
The environmental integrity of African Indigenous Knowledge Systems : probing the roots of African rationalityAuthor Cornel W. Du ToitSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 55 –73 (2005)More Less
Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) are part and parcel of the individual practising within a specific community and environmental context. Westerners tend to view IKS as the African equivalent of Western science, technology and rationality. Such view is wrong as it can harm the place of IKS in traditional African communities. This article stresses the importance of the precondition of the formation of IKS, which refers to the symbiotic interaction between a community and its (natural) environment. The relatively intact nature of African communities with the natural environment is discussed against the background of post-industrial societies whose interaction with the natural environment turned into an interaction with an artificial, technological environment. The individual's detachment from his / her natural environment was caused by the development of Western science, technology and rationality. <BR>Africa's level of development must be understood in terms of environmental factors in Africa's biogeography. African knowledge systems are the outcome of a long process of harmony and interaction with diverse environments. African and other pre-industrial societies interact with their environment in an ecologically sentient manner. The present challenge is to maintain African environmental integrity in an increasingly techno-scientific environment. This links knowledge systems to the corpus of meaning-giving rites, rituals, stories and beliefs of a community. This contrasts with Western domination rationality, which developed over a relatively short period of time, resulting in a disenchantment with the life world, and the separation of fact and reason from meaning and value. <BR>African IKS could prevent African culture from falling prey to the Western legacy of rational domination as presently manifested in a techno-scientific world, while testifying to the possibility of an ongoing harmonious relationship with nature.
Author J.A. (Bobby) LoubserSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 74 –88 (2005)More Less
To be productive, anyone in IKS research should be conversant with the complex systemic issues involved. This aspect is often neglected in favour of a systematic approach. This orientation paper aims to provide researchers with a framework for more productivity in the field.
Author Otsile NtsoaneSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 89 –109 (2005)More Less
The struggle for valuing endogenous knowledge, decolonising methodologies, liberating education, and indigenising education in Africa is not an easy one. African Indigenous Knowledge and its related technologies continue to play a pivotal role in the development of scientific knowledge, more so in Western societies than among holders of this knowledge. This is due to many international agreements including the Intellectual Property Rights law, the World Trade Organisation, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and so on, which negatively affect local / indigenous communities. <BR>The knowledge base of local communities in the South is undermined by such multilateral and bilateral agreements and Western patent laws. Violation of access to intellectual rights and to the benefit from natural resources is perpetuated by Western scientific explorations. The absence of indigenisation in the South African education system also contributes adversely to this. The 'colonial' science was, therefore, determined by the authoritarian imposition of the metropolitan interest in the 'colonies', something with which our educational system appears to be comfortable. <BR>This paper posits that this 'missionary' science hides the fact of metropolitan exploitation as the motive of colonial scientific activities. Language, curriculum, content and research methodologies still emphasise the western-dominant culture in teaching, the democratic process of ethical negotiation, in which social protagonists hitherto excluded from the political scene cannot fully participate in the education system as yet. The author subscribes to the notion that science education and cultural diversity have little meaning in postcolonial societies. In South Africa, as elsewhere in the South, postcolonial societies are of the opinion that science is taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge, and this elicits charges of epistemological hegemony and cultural imperialism. There is a need therefore to indigenise both education and the socialisation of citizens in a quest for self-determination.
Author Luvuyo DondoloSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 110 –126 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 110 INTANGIBLE HERITAGE: THE PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN VARIOUS ASPECTS OF SOCIAL LIFE Luvuyo Dondolo South African Heritage Resources Agency, Cape Town Idondolo@sahra.org.za Introduction Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and its systems are components of intangible heritage of which there are two types. Intangible heritage can be defined in association with tangible heritage, as it adds value and meaning to material heritage. The links and values - social, spiritual and non-spiritual, cultural, religious, political and historical values - of the material heritage give it intangible significance for the practising communities1 and imagined communities2. The definition of the other type is ..
Locating iIKKSA Trust in the indigenous movement and the search for appropriate protection mechanismsAuthor Bheki GilaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 127 –135 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 127 LOCATING iIKSSA TRUST IN THE INDIGENOUS MOVEMENT AND THE SEARCH FOR APPROPRIATE PROTECTION MECHANISMS Bheki Gila iIKSSA Trust, Pretoria email@example.com INTRODUCTION "Each generation must, out of relative obscurity, discover its mission, fulfill it, or betray it" (Frantz Fanon, The wretched of the earth) iIKSSA thanks the sponsors of this convocation for the opportunity to once again contribute to the topical issues informing the broader themes of indigenous knowledge, popularly known as IK, and the African assumptions that fuel the body politic of this endeavour by whatever appellation attributed to it. I am compelled to concede, and altruistically so, ..
Author Jan PersensSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 136 –143 (2005)More Less
Most notions of Indigenous Knowledge Systems would "contrast it with the knowledge generated within the international system of universities, research institutes and private firms" (Nuffic). Thus, in general, knowledge generated at ivy league institutions in the developed countries is unquestionably thought of as 'good' for any human endeavour, including those indulged in by 'local communities in developing countries'. The paper first challenges these notions of IKS and, secondly, contrasts them with the environmental degradation and other destructive activities based on our internationally generated knowledges. The paper probes the uneven or selective application of intellectual property rights when the (cultural) knowledge, generated by people from developing countries is at stake. In justifying our call for a more balanced view of the impact of IKS and knowledge gener-ated within the international system, several examples are given of the application of international knowledge by local communities in their daily lives. It is, therefore, claimed that some of the characteristics of indigenous knowledge, as proclaimed by some authors, reveal a number of myths about indigenous knowledge.
Wisdom in re-inventing the wheel? Cultivating and industrialising indigenous knowledge tracts in AfricaAuthor Chukwudi Anthony NjokuSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 144 –165 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 144 WISDOM IN RE-INVENTING THE WHEEL? CULTIVATING AND INDUSTRIALISING INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE TRACTS IN AFRICA1 Chukwudi Anthony Njoku Whelan Research Academy, Owerri, Nigeria INTRODUCTION: RE-INVENTING THE WHEEL? In the midst of the great plenty that the world has witnessed, with food surplus rather than food shortage, with massive plantations, mechanised agriculture and industrialisation, with crammed and overflowing supermarkets, is there still a need to be concerned about so-called recovering of endangered knowledge tracts, knowledge pathways, knowledge compasses, knowledge routes, knowledge stores and archives in Africa, Latin America, Asia and India? Do we really need them? Is it not an unnecessary ..
Author Elias MkhwanaziSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 166 –181 (2005)More Less
In the wake of multinationals dominating the world genetic pool of natural resources without minding the consequences thereof, the paper intends to look at the issues of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and the overriding intellectual property rights as pro-moted by Western governments and existing international regimes such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the defunct proposed Plant Variety Act, which fails to protect the interests of farmers. This Act allows corporates to access farmers' varieties. In lieu of enabling the community benefit-sharing principle to be effective as advocated by the Convention on Biodiversity, the paper endeavours to investigate what communities can do to safeguard their intellectual and genetic resource proceeds and interests, and assert their rights worldwide. The challenge for the communities is to assert themselves rather than act as mere red-tapism. Communities must retain their status as stewards or custodians of the biodiversity bequeathed to them by their forefathers, and must benefit, in one way or another, rather than act as supplicants for benefits to be given for the pleasure of the corporates. The benefits should be in the form of compensation - get compensated / receive royalties. This may extend to land reform programmes and tenure. Two case studies will be reviewed in the light of showcasing the issues at hand. The cases of the Khoi San experiences with multinationals, such as Pfizer and Glaxo, on the use of Hoodoo gordonii cactus (an appetite suppressant straw used during hunting), on issues of profits and royalties to be given to the community, and the dynamics involved when the research on medicinal and herbal uses of the extract of the straw is said to be put on hold. Thus, no reward at all. The other case concerns the basmati rice grown from varieties of rice in India. This rice variety has been patented by an American Company under a new name, Kasami rice by Rice Tech Pty Ltd, leaving many farmers crying foul, surprising many Indians who believe that seeds are never for sale but for sharing (navdanya = 9 seeds). Some generic cases of Africa will be mentioned to illustrate the extent of the damage caused by these multinationals and their greed. The paper advocates that the community be assertive, and not record their seed on the Biodiversity Register on the WIPO computer database, as this will push their traditional knowledge to the edge of extinction, instead of establishing a community biodiversity seed register (CBR) for their own benefit and for rejuvenating the economic basis of agriculture.
Author Geri AugustoSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 184 –209 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 184 GAMBLING ON INTERACTION: NATURAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PRACTITIONERS' EYES Geri Augusto Independent Scholar, Providence, USA firstname.lastname@example.org INTRODUCTION Extensive research based on the environment/conservation, developmental economics and intellectual property rights perspectives has provided insight into African indigenous knowledge. However, inquiry into the epistemological dimensions of indigenous knowledge and its interaction with western science, a road much less often travelled, complicates the picture and could lead to newer insights. What might be achieved by treating IKS as systematised knowledge, not merely heritage, culture or that associated with "nature"; local science in Africa as more than merely an "adjunct" of global ..
Resource conservation and utilisation through indigenous knowledge in a tribal community of Orissa, IndiaSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 210 –227 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 210 RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND UTILISATION THROUGH INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN A TRIBAL COMMUNITY OF ORISSA, INDIA Deepak Kumar Behera and Nibedita Nath Department of Anthropology, Sambalpur University, Orissa, India email@example.com INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE (IK) The concept of indigenous knowledge (hereafter IK) is reflected in the definition in Louise Grenier's Working with indigenous knowledge: a guide for researchers (IDRC, Ottawa 1998). Grenier defines IK as the unique, traditional and local knowledge existing within and developed around specific conditions of women and men indigenous to a particular geographic area. Many writers on IK agree that it also encompasses "non-technical insights, wisdom, ideas, perceptions ..
Author Jacob MuhandoSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 228 –242 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 228 SACRED SITES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION: A CASE STUDY OF KENYA Jacob Muhando Kenya Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge, National Museums of Kenya, P. O Box 40658 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya. firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com INTRODUCTION The best known sacred sites in Kenya are probably the kaya forests of the coastal Mijikenda peoples along the Kenya coastline. The sacred status of Mount Kenya is also well known (Kenyatta 1938), as are the mugumo trees (Ficus spp.) and sacred forests of the Kikuyu people of central Kenya. Less well known are the sacred sites of other ethnic groups, including the Luo, Maasai, Kamba ..
Author G.A. AbuSource: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 243 –248 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 243 THE USE OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN ANIMAL AND CROP PEST MANAGEMENT IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA1 G.A. Abu Lecturer and Research Fellow, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org INTRODUCTION Nigeria is blessed with immense natural assets for agricultural activities. The country has abundant land and human resources. The diverse capacities of these resources are under-utilised. As a result, the nation is confronted with problems such as inflation, unemployment and rural-urban drift. These problems emphasise the need for the adoption of a development strategy in order to restore agriculture to the ..
Source: Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 4, pp 249 –263 (2005)More Less
In recent decades an increased awareness has arisen of the failure of conven-tional agricultural practices to be effectively and equitably applied to the different types of zones in which agriculture is practised. This has resulted in greater attention being paid to local or indigenous knowledge. The present study exam-ines the indigenous knowledge relating to the cultivation and use of traditional vegetables in a rural parish in Uganda, using a participatory research method, Rapid Rural Appraisal. The results of the study illustrate the importance of understanding indigenous knowledge for future agricultural research and exten-sion activities. The results indicate a number of important issues regarding our understanding of indigenous knowledge, namely: it often contrasts with conven-tional agricultural practices, being influenced by its purposes and the resources to which it has access; not all the residents of a particular area have access to all the knowledge about a topic; it is more than technical knowledge, and there are differences and similarities in indigenous knowledge in different areas. To place some of the results in a broader context, a comparison was made with a similar study done in other African countries. The article concludes that greater understanding of the utilisation of appropriate indigenous knowledge would improve the success of future agricultural interventions.