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- Volume 22, Issue 1, 2001
Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies - Volume 22, Issue 1, 2001
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 1, 2001
Author Hein ViljoenSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 1 –2 (2001)More Less
"Zuidafrikaanse prof geweerd van congres" berig die Reformatorisch Dagblad op 29 Julie 1988. So word die verhaal ingelui van Jacques van der Elst se verset teen die Internationale Vereniging voor Neerlandistiek wat, onder druk van hulle vernaamste geldvoorsiener, die Nederlandse Taalunie, weier om hom as Suid-Afrikaner toe te laat om aan die kongres in Gent deel te neem. Soos bekend, moes hy hom tot die hof wend voordat hy sy voorregte as lid van die IVN kon uitoefen en die kongres op eie koste kon bywoon.
Author Heilna Du PlooySource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 3 –6 (2001)More Less
Die uitnodiging om bydraes te lewer vir 'n versamelbundel van artikels wat opgedra word aan professor Jacques van der Elst by sy aftrede, is met entoesiasme ontvang. Kollegas en akademiese vriende uit Nederland, uit België, uit Pole, uit Noorweë en van naby en ver in Suid-Afrika het gereageer. Dit getuig van die agting waarmee Jacques as vriend en as kollega bejeën word. Dit is met genoeë dat die redaksie van Literator hierdie gerf uitsoekkoring kan aanbied - 'n oes met verskeidenheid en kwaliteit.
Author Hans EsterSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 9 –26 (2001)More Less
The labyrinth in literature : from Baroque to Postmodernism
The labyrinth has proved to be an essential symbol of postmodernist literature and the philosophy of our time. This symbol has apparently had the power to bridge the centuries between Ancient Greece and the year 2000. In reality the labyrinth as a geometrical figure has acquired various meanings in the course of time. The history of the labyrinth as symbol shows that the constant elements are as essential as the changes in meaning from the Middle Ages until the present day. Two of the new symbolic elements that accompany the labyrinth on its way through various cultural periods are the garden and the path of life. During the Baroque the labyrinth, for example, represented the synthesis of garden, path and maze. At the end of the twentieth century the labyrinth once more becomes a dominant and significant structure. The labyrinth reflects the inability and perhaps impossibility to find the key to the centre of the world and to discover the truth behind the words we use. On the other hand, the labyrinth suggests that the search for meaning and truth is an aim in itself or even that this search can lead to new forms of wisdom. The labyrinth therefore is an ambivalent and fascinating symbol of our time. Dedalus and Ariadne, however, have not yet brought the salvation we are waiting for.
Author Marcel JanssensSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 27 –37 (2001)More Less
Looking back at the Gezelle-year 1999. "Doktortjie" and "dichtertje"
"Doktortjie" refers to Prof. Dr. J.D. Du Toit (Totius) and "dichtertje" (small poet) refers to the title of an article, written by a Dutch poet in the beginning of the year 1999, commemorating the death of Flanders' famous poet Guido Gezelle, 100 years ago. This article attempts to give a survey of the endless commemorative festivities, happenings, conferences, articles and books in 1999, both in Flanders and the Netherlands. Although some articles have attacked his fame severely (e.g. as a "small poet"), his position in the literary canon still seems very strong and safe.
Celliers se "Uitkyk" in Pole. Doelbewuste of toevallige parallelle tussen Martjie van Jan F.E. Celliers en Pan Tadeusz van Adam Mickiewicz? : research articleAuthor Jerzy KochSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 39 –66 (2001)More Less
Celliers's "Uitkyk" in Poland. Intentional or coincidental parallels between Martjie by Jan. F.E. Celliers and Master Thaddeus by Adam Mickiewicz?
This article focuses on the relations between different literary texts that are exemplified here by the parallelism between epic poems in Afrikaans (written by Jan F.E. Celliers) and in Polish (by Adam Mickiewicz). The article analyses the knowledge of Polish national matters within South Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. The article presents an outline of the biography of Adam Mickiewicz, the most important Polish romantic poet. It also discusses the likelihood of Celliers becoming acquainted with Pan Tadeusz while staying in Switzerland. Rereading Celliers's Martjieagainst the background of Mickiewicz's Pan Tadeusz not only opens a new perspective for the formulation of an innovative hypothesis about influences and dependencies in literature, but also for a reinterpretation of the tradition of early Afrikaans patriotic literature. Using the concept of intertextuality as a point of departure, I aim to examine the astonishing parallelisms between Martjie and Pan Tadeusz, evident on different levels of analysis. I also try to demonstrate that this was a typical element of Celliers's erudition and poetical practice.
Die lang pad na die appelboom : oor besondere tuine en tuiniers in enkele Nederlandse gedigte : research articleAuthor Wilfred JonckheereSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 67 –80 (2001)More Less
The long road to the apple tree : special gardens and gardeners in a selection of Dutch poems
Gardens and gardeners are very meaningful symbols in most cultures and especially in literature. Gardens suggest the better country, an earthly or heavenly paradise, the soul "and the qualities cultivated in it" (Cooper, 1978). The gardener, on the other hand, is symbolic of the Creator who is the gardener of the soul, regenerating spiritual life in the individual. Plants like lilies and roses growing in these spiritual landscapes are also significant. In what follows a number of Dutch poems utilizing these important symbols are scrutinized. Starting with late the Middle Ages, Suster Bertken's Lyedeken;" is seen as the prototype in its genre. After that the focus is placed on Dutch poems from the 19th and 20th century: Petrus Augustus de Génestet's "'t Was toch de hovenier" and Ida Gerhardt's "Christus als hovenier" are compared as both use the symbol of the gardener. Both poems are based on a verse from John's gospel. In the last instance Rutger Kopland's "Onder de appelboom", a totally secular poem written in praise of his private earthly paradise, is analysed.
Al sietmen de lui ... : perspektiewe op boere en boerejolyt in enkele Nederlandse en Afrikaanse gedigte : research articleAuthor Dorothea Van ZylSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 81 –98 (2001)More Less
Though one sees the people ... (one does not therefore know them) : perspectives on farmers and boorish festivity in a number of Dutch and Afrikaans poems
A selection of a few Dutch and Afrikaans poems from, inter alia, the seventeenth, nineteenth and early twentieth century, share so many characteristics in their combination of the subjects "farmer" ("boer") and "feast", that in this article the question is raised whether these stereotypes form part of a relatively fixed traditional topic or "storehouse" of conventions. Each poem utilizes colloquial language, diminutives and nicknames in the depiction of a dance party in a rural setting - an event characterized by immoderate behaviour, particularly regarding love-making and the use of liquor. More recent Afrikaans poems (written within a context where the initially negative term "Boer" has been transfigured positively due to the expansion of Afrikaner-Nationalist power) satirize other aspects, like status and wealth instead of backwardness, but it seems as if excess and transgression are still associated with "boer" in combination with festivity. The concept of farmer often functions as the Other in these poems, in binary opposition to the narrator.
Author K. Langvik-JohannessenSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 99 –112 (2001)More Less
Literary historians and eighteenth-century drama literature of the South Netherlands
Towards the end of the l6th century the national unity within the Netherlands, created during the reign of Charles V, was lost and the country actually became divided. Writers, craftsmen and rich merchants from the south of the Netherlands fled the terror of the Duke of Alba to the new free Netherlandish state in the northern part. Thus the cultural centre shifted from the south to the north and the old cultural centre actually existed in the shadow of the new. This cultural development is clearly indicated in the works of Dutch literary historians of the l9th and 20th century. In the northern part of the Netherlands the literature of the l7th century reached a high literary-esthetic level, but after the death of Joost van den Vondel (a South-Netherlandish writer in Amsterdam) in l679 the period of great personalities was ended. During this ensuing period a mere literary aesthetic level was somehow maintained, but the art of poetry degenerated to a literature of epigone, adapting French tragedy as example. In the South-Netherlands, on the other hand, writers followed in the old Netherlandish theatre tradition. Within this tradition a series of original dramatic works were produced during the l8th century. These dramas formed the basis of magnificent theatre performances in grand late-Baroque style. However, these dramas and their writers have mainly been ignored by Dutch literary historians, who - sometimes without even having read the dramatic texts - characterize them without hesitation as inferior works.
Author Eep FranckenSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 113 –135 (2001)More Less
New moments? : the Dutch novel after 1985
Looking at the years 1985-2000, a few questions about Dutch literature seem to be relevant. Which new Dutch novels were the most successful? Which changes occurred in Dutch society during that same period? And in the literary world of the Netherlands? This article attempts to answer these questions, while at the same time arguing for a new edition of Jacques van der Elst's Momente van die Nederlandse letterkunde (Moments in Dutch literature).
Author H.P. Van CollerSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 137 –154 (2001)More Less
A sample of reconstruction : Een mond vol glas by Henk van Woerden
This article focuses on Van Woerden's triptych Moenie kyk nie, Tikoesand 'n Mond vol glas with the emphasis on the latter. When the recurring themes and the continuous autobiographical stance in this triptych are scrutinised, it becomes clear that this triptych is in actual fact a prose cycle, focusing on the complex relationship between Van Woerden and South Africa. Van Woerden's third novel ostensibly recreates the murder of Dr. Verwoerd, late Prime Minister of South Africa in the apartheid era. In fact it actually traces the evolution of Demitrios Tsafendas, murderer of Verwoerd. In the novel Tsafendas is portrayed as a deeply tragic figure, someone who suffered severely from psychosis brought about by the fact that he could never come to terms with the fact that he was a "coloured" person in a racially divided world. Due to his coloured heritage in a racially divided world, Tsafendas (and Verwoerd) are depicted as archetypical migrants - and thus alter-egos of Van Woerden himself. This novel is thus also a profound analysis of the exile.
Verhalen van Matsombo : Jef Geeraerts' beeld van de "Kongo-crisis" in Het verhaal van Matsombo : research articleAuthor Siegfried HuigenSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 155 –162 (2001)More Less
Matsombo's stories : Jef Geeraerts's representation of the "Congo crisis" in Het verhaal van Matsombo
The so-called Congo crisis (1960-1965) received a great deal of attention internationally. A literary response in Dutch to what happened in the former Belgian colony is Het verhaal van Matsombo (Matsombo's story) by Flemish writer and former colonial civil servant, Jef Geeraerts. Until now, little critical attention has been given to Het verhaal van Matsombo, despite regular reprints of the text. This article researches how the Congo crisis is represented in Geeraerts's novel. Although Geeraerts's depiction of colonial conflict is, in certain respects, close to that of Franz Fanon, Geeraerts's is ultimately a Western view.
Author S. W. Van ZuydamSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 163 –178 (2001)More Less
The observation of reality in Bernlef's early poetry
The observation of reality played a major role in J. Bernlef's writings. He particularly emphasized the neutral and objective observation of ordinary things, but such observation had to be done in a way that the artefact would reveal the uncommon or unfamiliar in what had been observed. Critics are of the opinion that Bernlef's poetics changed after 1970, mainly because his poetry became more concise and intricate. In fact, his poetic style is related to a reduction process in which the language used became more ambiguous and problematic.
It is my intention to explore Bernlef's early poetics and to show that the socalled renewal in his poetry during the seventies had in fact already taken place during the sixties.
De ergste vijand ben jezelf : de identificatie van dader en slachtoffer in het werk van Armando : research articleAuthor Rolf WolfswinkelSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 179 –189 (2001)More Less
The worst enemy will be yourself : the identification of victim and perpetrator in Armando's literary work
When the work of the Dutch painter / sculptor / poet / author / musician Armando is discussed, the same questions often occur. What do paintings with strange titles like "Peinture Criminelle" and "Paysage Criminelle" refer to? What horrible subjects does he write about? How can a painting or a landscape be criminal? What is "a guilty landscape"? Is this an artist who is interested in eulogising violence, is this an aesthetisation of evil?
The same questions will come to the fore again when viewing Armando's short film "Der Feldzug" (The Campaign) : scenes of firing tanks, explosions, a railway being blown up, Waffen-SS soldiers looking for cover in muddy riverbanks. To make matters worse, almost all scenes are taken from "Die Wochenschau" (The Week in Pictures), the German bioscope magazine, which was controlled by Joseph Goebbels' Ministry of Propaganda. The film is almost completely in slow-motion and takes place in arcadian settings of waving trees and wide, steppe-like landscapes. The entire experience of this film has the effect of an immersion in violence, an almost perverse obsession with war and destruction.
In this article it is argued that in Armando's work the traditional binary opposition between victim and perpetrator is cancelled and replaced by a seamless transition from the one to the other : perpetrator and victim become one, forever bound to one another by the same event.
Author Wium Van ZylSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 191 –202 (2001)More Less
Disorientation in W.F. Hermans' Herinneringen van een engelbewaarder(1974)
The Dutch author Willem Frederik Hermans became famous for the strategies he utilized to mislead and frustrate the reader in his novel De donkere kamer van Damokles (1958). This rhetorical process was meticulously analysed by W.H.M. Smulders in his book De literaire misleiding in De donkere kamer van Damokles (1983). In this article relevant analytical instruments, inter alia a selection of those used by Smulders, are implemented regarding the author's next novel on the war, Herinneringen van een engelbewaarder (1971). The conclusion of this article is that in the mentioned novel Hermans replaces a single mechanism in misleading the reader with a series of smaller, but still very effective similar strategies, to foreground man's inability to attain a grasp on reality.
Van kind tot jong volwassene : die ontwikkeling van die hoofkarakter in De koperen tuin van Simon Vestdijk : research articleAuthor Betsie Van der WesthuizenSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 203 –219 (2001)More Less
From child to young adult : the development of the main character in De koperen tuin (The garden where the brass band played) by Simon Vestdijk
From an intertextual study it emerges that the postulated view of reality in the psychological-philosophical text De toekomst der religie (The future of religion) (1947) is transposed in narrative form in the text-internal vision of reality in the novel De koperen tuin (The garden where the brass band played) (1950). In both these texts the religious point of departure of the meaning of existence is reflected upon. Existential aspects especially highlighted, include the following: the I, the relationship with others, being involved in the situation, freedom, responsibility, guilt, angst, death, that which is "too-late". Furthermore the extension of the moment, the directedness at a personal passion, and the individual's courage to be and to keep "becoming" are also highlighted. All these aspects emphasizing existentialism are portrayed in the development of the main character, Nol Rieske, from little boy to young adult.
Source: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 221 –229 (2001)More Less
Elise Muller : surprises in the seemingly commonplace
In the late fifties, N.P. van Wyk Louw characterised Die vrou op die skuit, a collection of short stories by Elise Muller, as a text typical of traditional Afrikaans writing - realistic, local and homely. In this article, we would argue, however, that a rereading of the prose of Elise Muller proves her work to be far from traditional. In a number of her stories she satirises patriarchy, exposes racism and questions conventional views of God and religion. Under the apparently conventional surface, her stories often reveal a surprising unconventionality. In fact, she could be regarded as a forerunner, or even a member, of the revolutionary Movement of the Sixties.
Source: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 22, pp 230 –233 (2001)More Less
Bydraes word gevra vir 'n spesiale uitgawe oor literatuuronderwys. Uitkomsgebaseerde onderrig en leerprogramme is maar twee van die besondere uitdagings wat literatuuronderrig in Suid-Afrika vandag die hoof moet bied. Daarmee saam gaan die tendense dat nuttigheid dikwels die vernaamste oorweging geword het en dat literatuur as sodanig wêreldwyd sy waarde as kulturele kapitaal verloor het.