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- Volume 23, Issue 3, 2002
Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies - Volume 23, Issue 3, 2002
Volume 23, Issue 3, 2002
Author Marius CrousSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 1 –15 (2002)More Less
Aspects of the author function in Antjie Krog's Lady Anne (1989)
The purpose of this essay is to investigate the Foucauldian notion of the so-called "author function" in Antjie Krog's seventh volume of poetry, viz. Lady Anne (1989). It is an attempt to show how the notion of the death of the author (Barthes) links up with this theorisation of Foucault. Furthermore, it is also an attempt to indicate the characteristic features of the so-called "author function" in the late eighties in Afrikaans poetry, especially with regard to the conflict between aestheticism and political ideology in poetic expression. Focus is also placed on the role of the author's name within the discursive framework of what is regarded as "Afrikaans literature", as well as the author's interaction with other authors within that discursive framework, in particular, Breyten Breytenbach.
The many "faces" of history : Manly Pursuits and Op soek na generaal Mannetjies Mentz at the interface of confrontation and reconciliationAuthor Marita WenzelSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 17 –32 (2002)More Less
The many "faces" of history : Manly Pursuits and Op soek na generaal Mannetjies Mentz at the interface of confrontation and reconciliation
Several English and Afrikaans novels written during the nineties focus on confrontation with the past by exposing past injustices and undermining various myths and legends constructed in support of ideological beliefs. This commitment has gradually assumed the proportions of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A comparison of two recent novels dealing with events preceding and during the Anglo-Boer War, Manly Pursuits by Ann Harries and Op soek na generaal Mannetjies Mentz [In search of General Mannetjies Mentz] by Christoffel Coetzee provides an interesting angle to this debate. This article is an attempt to contextualise these novels within the larger framework of a contemporary South African reality; to acknowledge and reconcile, or assemble, disparate "faces" of a South African historical event at a specific moment in time. In Manly Pursuits, Ann Harries focuses on the arch imperialist, the "colossus of Africa", Cecil John Rhodes, to expose the machinations behind the scenes in the "take over" of southern Africa, while in the Afrikaans novel, Op soek na generaal Mannetjies Mentz, the General becomes the embodiment of collective guilt. Written within a postmodern paradigm, both texts problematize the relationship between history and fiction by revealing deviations from "historic data" suggesting alternate versions of such "documentation" and by juxtaposing the private lives of historical personages with their public images.
Author Theodore R. RodriguesSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 33 –61 (2002)More Less
The translator as agent of empowerment : a case study
In this article the focus is on the role of the translator as an agent of empowerment for linguistically marginalised communities; it also raises the practical issue of his / her role as an intermediary equipped with knowledge of the source and target cultures and their (non-)overlap. The community translation approach, which emerged from a socio-linguistic perspective, forms the basis for this point of departure. The aim of this approach is to give these communities access to the same information and services as the linguistical "elite". In order to realise this, the translator uses discourse patterns and linguistic conventions of the target group. For this approach, the needs of the target audience in the translation process are of paramount importance. To illustrate the translator's role as an agent of empowerment as well as an effective intermediary, this article's focus is on translation strategies used in a pragmatic text.
Author Gareth CornwellSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 63 –80 (2002)More Less
And a Threefold Cord : La Guma's neglected masterpiece?
For a variety of reasons (including its publication history), Alex la Guma's second novel <i>And a Threefold Cord</i> (1964) has long been neglected by readers and critics. This essay seeks to redress this situation by offering a reading of the novel that demonstrates its artistic integrity. Like A Walk in the Night, And a Threefold Cord avoids the overt propagandizing that arguably mars La Guma's later work. The political "message" of the text is shown to emerge organically from events that unfold in its presented world. And a Threefold Cord is set in a Cape Flats shantytown, and it analyses the predicament of the shanty dwellers in terms of class inequality and economic exploitation, rather than in terms of racial discrimination. This ensures the novel's continuing relevance in a South Africa where far too many people are inadequately housed in ever-growing "informal settlements".
Author Harry SewlallSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 81 –96 (2002)More Less
George Orwell's Animal Farm : a metonym for a dictatorship
George Orwell's Animal Farm is traditionally read as a satire on dictatorships in general, and the Bolshevik Revolution in particular. This article postulates the notion that the schema of the book has attained the force of metonymy to such an extent that whenever one alludes to the title of the book or some lines from it, one conjures up images associated with a dictatorship. The title of the book has become a part of the conceptual political lexicon of the English language to refer to the corruption of a utopian ideology. As an ideological state, Animal Farm has its vision, which is embedded in its constitution; it has the vote, a national anthem and a flag. It even has its patriots, double-dealers, social engineers and lechers. In this way the title Animal Farm, like Joseph Heller's Catch-22 or Thomas More's Utopia, functions metonymically to map a conceptual framework which matches the coordinates of the book. The article concludes with a look at contemporary society to show how Orwell's satire endorses the words of Lord Acton, namely, that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Source: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 97 –116 (2002)More Less
Ezra Pound's orientalist poetry, natural rootedness, and Lepidoptera
In this article, we focus on the outward purpose (Umberto Eco) and natural rootedness of Ezra Pound's translation of Li Tai Po's "The River Merchant's Wife : a Letter." Natural rootedness - a sign actively conditioned by and into a dynamic ecosystem - is a central aspect of Taoist poetics and modernist orientalism (Gary Snyder). We follow the outward purpose of the sign, in further exploration of a zone of between-ness : between the opposites of culture and nature (William Howarth). In particular, we focus on the butterfly image in this poem. An interdisciplinary, ecosemiotic reading is made of this image within its poetic and natural context. We argue that this image is related to actual (ecological and evolutionary) butterfly colouration and behaviour in the (Chinese) ecosystem. Although no historical evidence of either Pound's or Li Po's interest in butterflies exists as far as could be determined, the middle ground between English and Chinese that Pound occupies (Eric Hayot) in this translation, could partially explain the interlevel correspondence between this image and actual butterfly behaviour. The article demonstrates that the image ties in well with an autumnal orpimentation or "enyellowment" of butterflies, as well as their sexual behaviour. It concludes that the significance of the sign is enhanced by its outward purpose towards and interpenetration with and within active nature, culminating in this central natural image in this important and creative poetic translation by Pound.
Author P.D. RyanSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 117 –137 (2002)More Less
Producing subjectivities, taking risks : new directions for teaching women's poetry in South Africa
This paper is based on five years experience of teaching an innovative poetry course at third-year level at a distance education institution. Conceived at a time when universities across the country were in the throes of academic and institutional transformation, the course departed radically from the so-called knowledge-as-accumulated-capital ethos and pointed toward assumptions initiated by Paulo Freire that knowledge can meaningfully emerge from the interaction of students from different backgrounds and asymmetrical social positions, especially when such knowledge is situated within a context which allows for creativity, self-reflexivity and critique. Most significantly, this course made available for students a forum for expressing subjectivity without the accompanying anxiety that they would be penalised for doing so. Questions are raised as to the value of presumed "objectivity" as a criterion for academic discourse, and theoretical considerations concerning the privileging of certain epistemologically suspect procedures are aired. Finally, I describe my particular contribution to the course as teacher of gender theory and show how students react to new, even revolutionary, ideas about the intersections of race and gender in relation to reading and writing about poetry.
Source: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 139 –160 (2002)More Less
On Austro-Dutch and the origin of Afrikaans
A widely accepted view of the origin of Afrikaans holds that the new language developed autochthonously, after 1652 when the language of the early Cape settlers was influenced by imported slaves speaking Malay and Portuguese, and by the pidgin talk of the Cape Khoikhoi. This "autochthonous hypothesis", however, does not take cognizance of the fact that shortened (deflected) Dutch verb forms found in Afrikaans, for instance, are also found in loan words in the Ceylon-Portuguese creole, as well as in Indonesian, and Malay-influenced languages of Indonesia. Moreover, large numbers of Dutch East India Company sojourners, who had acquired an "adapted" form of Dutch during their stay in the East, spent a significant time at the Cape on their return voyage. The argument is put forward that they brought with them a number of language features clearly comparable with "distinctive features" in incipient (and developed) Afrikaans, such as the shortened verb and the use of the perfect instead of imperfect verb forms to indicate a simple past tense. The variety of Dutch spoken by them is called Austro-Dutch, which, it is argued, forms the basis of an "oceanic hypothesis" to add a new dimension to theories about the formation of Afrikaans.
Author A.H. (Annie) GagianoSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 161 –177 (2002)More Less
Two bad-time stories and a song of hope
Using three fairly recently published South African texts - David B. Coplan's In the Time of Cannibals - The Word Music of South Africa's Basotho Migrants (1994); A.H.M. Scholtz's Vatmaar - 'n Lewendagge verhaal van 'n tyd wat nie meer is nie (1995) in its English translation, A Place Called Vatmaar (2000) and Mongane (Wally) Serote's Come and Hope with Me (1994) - this essay looks at the role such texts can play to give public expression to the voices of formerly silenced communities. The essay contends that the deep fissures in South African society require intense efforts in order to make those isolated from one another mutually intelligible. All South Africans need to broaden their cultural vocabularies. This is where texts such as novels and those containing the oral art of neglected communities can function as 'translations', and have profound social importance. It can be predicted that rehistoricising writings and culturally recontextualising teaching practices will continue to be required in this country, but also texts that contain the vision of a shared South African future.
The development of critical and cultural literacies in a study of Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter in the South African literature classroomAuthor R.H. LathaSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 179 –195 (2002)More Less
The development of critical and cultural literacies in a study of Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter in the South African literature classroom.
The Languages, Literacy and Communication learning area of Curriculum 2005 endorses "intercultural understanding, access to different world views and a critical understanding of the concept of culture" (National Department of Education, 2001 : 44). Although this curriculum is learner-centred and tries to create a better balance in the previously asymmetrical relationship between teacher and student, it does place great demands on the educator to avoid reinforcing cultural and multipolitical ideals which are not concomitant with the principles of a multicultural democracy. Since learners are expected to respond to the aesthetic, affective, cultural and social values in texts, the educator has to act responsibly in choosing texts which promote the values inherent in Curriculum 2005. Implicit in the curriculum statement is a commitment to critical pedagogy in the literature classroom with the general aim of promoting societal transformation. As the cultural assumptions underlying particular texts are often not known or shared by all learners, it is important for the educator to facilitate an examination of these assumptions in order to promote cultural understanding and values such as religious tolerance. This article will therefore investigate the development of cultural and critical literacies in the South African literature classroom with particular focus on So Long a Letter by the postcolonial African Muslim woman writer, Mariama Ba.
Imagologie en die bestudering van literêre stereotipes in die onderrig van Afrikaans as addisionele taalAuthor Estelle KrugerSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 197 –219 (2002)More Less
Imagology and the study of literary stereotypes in die teaching of Afrikaans as additional language
Imagology is the study of national and ethnic stereotypes as represented in literature. These stereotypes are represented in literary images of identity and alterity when intercultural contact is portrayed in texts. The main concepts of Imagology are discussed to provide educators with a scientific framework in the teaching of Afrikaans as additional language, with specific reference to literature teaching. Learners from various cultural backgrounds bring with them their own stereotypes. Studying literary youth texts that portray images of national stereotypes can facilitate the process of intercultural understanding and reconciliation. Learners can be exposed to the representation of Self and Other in prescribed Afrikaans literary texts without their self-image being threatened, yet discovering the relativity of values, and learning respect for their own culture as well as for that of the target language.
The background, scientific approach and principles of Imagology are described, as well as important concepts. By using Imagology as a literary tool in studying Afrikaans texts in the additional language classroom, literature teaching will include looking at the narrative and functions of youth literature to discern psychological and ideological focalisation, together with its influence on negative and positive representations of Self and Other.
Author Heilna Du PlooySource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 223 –225 (2002)More Less
Johann Lodewyk Marais het homself al meermale bewys as 'n digter met 'n besondere oog en aanvoeling vir die natuur en die ekologie. Afgesien van die ontginning van temas wat verband hou met die omgewing in sy eie verse, was hy ook mederedakteur en -samesteller van bundels soos Groen - gedigte oor die omgewing (1990).
Tekste uit ons koloniale verlede toeganklik gemaak.
Die Suidhoek van Afrika. Geskrifte oor Suid-Afrika uit die Nederlandse tyd, 1653-1806, K. Schoeman : book reviewAuthor J. Van der ElstSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 226 –228 (2002)More Less
Source: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 229 –231 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... Resensies , :223-337 , 229 Goedsmoeds doen al die betekenisse van di? woord gestand Van Rooyen, Piet. 2002. Goedsmoeds. Pretoria : Protea Boekhuis. 56 p. Prys: R59.95. ISBN 1 919825 76 2. Resensent: Fanie Olivier (Universiteit van Venda) Dit is amper dertig jaar gelede wat Piet van Rooyen by HAUM gedebuteer het met die dun bundel (35 gedigte) Draak op die erf: hardeband-omslag; R2-25. En tien jaar later, in 1983, Rondom 'n boorvuur, waarin heelwat van die debuut herdig word. Intussen het Piet van Rooyen veral as prosaskrywer groot naam gemaak, en verseker dat hoewel Namibi? buiteland en ..
"Walkabout", reis en die emosionele waarde van plekke.
en die here het foto's geneem oor vanderbijlpark, Ronel Nel : book reviewSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 231 –234 (2002)More Less
Author M.P. HumanSource: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 234 –236 (2002)More Less
Die wrede somer (2002) is die ses-en-dertigste roman wat uit die produktiewe skrywerspen van Doc Immelman verskyn en kan, saam met sy vorige jag-, misdaad- en oorlogsavontuurverhale, onder die noemer populêre ontspanningslektuur tuisgebring word. Weer eens vorm die voormalige Suidwes die verhaalruimte, terwyl daar opnuut geput word uit die konvensies van die sogenaamde formuleliteratuur.
Source: Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies 23, pp 257 –260 (2002)More Less