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oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Die tradisionele Christelike godsdiens en teologie in die greep van 'n verouderde paradigma : diagnose en prognose : godsdienswetenskappe

 

Abstract

Die artikel neem as vertrekpunt die oortuiging van Hans Küng dat die Christelike godsdiens en teologie sedert die 1ste eeu n.C. vyf paradigmaveranderings beleef het en dat dit daarom moontlik is om ses paradigmas te kan onderskei. Hierdie paradigmas omskryf hy soos volg: (1) Vroeg-Christelike apokaliptiese paradigma (30-100); (2) Vroeg-Kerklik-Hellenistiese paradigma (100-400); (3) Latyns-Middeleeuse Katolieke paradigma (400-1500); (4) die paradigma van die Protestantse Hervorming (1500-1700); (5) die paradigma van die Verligting (1700-1900); en (6) die Ekumeniese, Bevrydingsteologie en Postmoderne paradigma (1900-2000).


Die artikel argumenteer dat hoewel Küng 'n bydrae gelewer het om die geskiedenis en ontwikkeling van die Christelike godsdiens en teologie beter te verstaan, nuwere navorsing ons dwing om sy insigte aan te pas. Navorsers het uitgewys dat die Christelike godsdiens en teologie gedurende die eerste drie eeue nie so eenvormig was soos wat Küng dit beskryf nie. 'n Eenvormige paradigma het eers gedurende die 4de en 5de eeu tot stand gekom. Philip Kennedy omskryf hierdie paradigma as die Augustiniaanse paradigma en vat dit in drie woorde saam: Sondeval-Verlossing-Eindoordeel. Hierdie paradigma het geloof en wetenskap in die Westerse wêreld vir meer as vyftien eeue oorheers. Wetenskaplike ontdekkings sedert die 16de eeu het dit egter begin ondermyn en 'n kloof tussen wetenskap en geloof geskep. Die gaping tussen laasgenoemde twee het só groot geword dat dit tans onoorbrugbaar is.
In die artikel word daarop gewys dat die Augustiniaanse paradigma 'n geslote sisteem geword het wat aanpassings bemoeilik; voorts dat dit verweef is met 'n uitgediende kosmologie en antropologie. 'n Nuwe paradigma kan die teologie weer lewensvatbaar en lewenskragtig maak, maar dit sal 'n radikale breuk tot gevolg moet hê. Küng het die "vergroening van die Christelike godsdiens" in sy uiteensetting van die nuwe paradigma aangeroer, maar hy het nie die eise wat dit aan die tradisionele teologie stel, goed verwoord nie.


The author takes his cue from Hans Küng's conviction that the Christian religion and its theology have experienced five paradigm changes during the course of its history and that it is, therefore, possible to identify six distinct paradigms. Küng named these: (1) the Jewish apocalyptic paradigm of earliest Christianity (30-100); (2) the Ecumenical Hellenistic paradigm of Christian antiquity (100-400); (3) the Roman Catholic paradigm of the Middle Ages (400-1500); (4) the Protestant Evangelical paradigm of the Reformation (1500-1700); (5) the paradigm of the Enlightenment (1700-1900); (6) the paradigm of Modernity, focused on reason and progress (1900-2000).
It is argued that although Küng contributed to a better understanding of the history of Christianity, recent research necessitates an adjustment of his viewpoints and convictions. New Testament scholars have proved that early Christianity was diverse and that no unifying or dominating paradigm (or paradigms) existed during the first three centuries, as Küng claims. A unifying paradigm evolved during the 4th and 5th centuries, owing to the policies and acts of the Roman emperors Constantine (275-337) and Theodosius (346-95). Constantine declared Christianity a legitimate religion of the Roman Empire, while Theodosius took it one stage further by making it the Empire's sole official religion. He forbade assemblies of heretics and ordered pagan temples to be destroyed. Owing to the Emperors' involvement, and under their auspices, Christian councils met to formulate doctrines and creeds and soon a unifying paradigm came into existence. Philip Kennedy calls this the Augustinian paradigm, maintaining that it has dominated Western Christianity up to the present century. He summarises the paradigm in three words: Fall-Redemption-Judgement.
Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is indeed one of the major architects of the paradigm. His theological convictions on Original Sin (or the Fall) at the beginning of creation contradicted those of Pelagius, Celestius and Julian of Ecclanum. Augustine's view was based on an erroneous interpretation of Genesis 1-3 and Romans 5:12-21, but, thanks to the involvement of the Emperor Honorius (395-423), Augustine's convictions carried the day and the other theological viewpoints were classified as heretical. It is argued that the Augustinian paradigm eventually developed into a grand narrative consisting of five interconnected episodes. These are: (1) Creation; (2) Original Sin; (3) Crucifixion and Redemption; (4) Resurrection and Ascension; (5) Second Coming and Judgement.

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/content/litnet/10/2/EJC141439
2013-08-01
2016-12-03
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