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oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Die historiese verloop van die Unesco MAB-program in Suid-Afrika : geesteswetenskappe

 

Abstract

Die Unesco-biosfeerreservaat-konsep word eers sedert betreklik onlangs in Suid-Afrika toegepas. Die eerste biosfeerreservaat is in 1998 geregistreer en tans is daar ses geregistreerde biosfeerreservate in die land. Biosfeerreservate is baie spesiale landskappe wat internasionaal deur Unesco volgens die Mens-en-Biosfeer-program (Man and the Biosphere Program, oftewel MAB Program) geregistreer word. Die Wêreldnetwerk van Biosfeerreservate bevat 610 reservate in 117 lande. Die eerste kennismaking met die MAB-program in Suid-Afrika het in die vroeë 1990's in die Wes-Kaap beslag gekry. Suid-Afrika is in 1995 by die Seville-konferensie in Spanje verteenwoordig. Talle besprekings het gevolg, waarna die biosfeerreservaat-konsep met verdrag deur bewaringsorganisasies in die land geïmplementeer is. Tans word die konsep in samewerking met ander landskapsinisiatiewe gebruik om biostreekbeplanning en volhoubare ontwikkeling te bevorder, asook om die netwerk van bewaringsgebiede te vergroot. Hierdie artikel beskryf die historiese gebeure rondom die implementering van die Unesco MAB-program in Suid-Afrika. Die vroeë implementering van die konsep en die ontwikkeling daarvan tot 'n landskapsbestuursraamwerk oor die afgelope aantal jare word bespreek. 'n Mening word ook gegee oor die toekomstige voordele van die MAB-program in Suid-Afrika.


The UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) originated in 1968 at the Biosphere Conference in Paris, France. The MAB Program promotes the establishment of biosphere reserves throughout all biogeographical regions of the world. In March 1995 the International Conference for Biosphere Reserves was convened by UNESCO in Seville, Spain. The tangible results of the Seville Conference were the Seville Strategy for Biosphere Reserves and The Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO 1996). These instruments provide a common platform for the development of biosphere reserves, and define the principles, criteria and procedure for their designation (Robertson Vernhes 2007). They also establish the framework for governance of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) and provide for a periodic review of designated sites for every ten years of their existence. The WNBR is organised into a support structure of regional and subregional networks and currently consists of 610 biosphere reserves in 117 countries (UNESCO 2009a).
The essence of the biosphere reserve concept involves the combination of three functions within a specific landscape: conservation (of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation), development (fostering economic development which is ecologically and culturally sustainable) and logistic support (research, monitoring, education and training) (UNESCO 1996). These three functions support the notion of sustainable development as it is widely used today.
The MAB Program was introduced to South Africa in the early 1990s, coinciding with the country's re-entering the international arena. The first biosphere reserve in South Africa was designated in 1998. The biosphere reserve concept is increasingly being considered as an option of expanding the system of protected areas by focusing on sustainable socio-ecological and economic development.

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/content/litnet/10/2/EJC141450
2013-08-01
2016-12-08
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