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oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Die problematiek verbonde aan die identifikasie van spp. in honde (), jakkalse () en rooikatte () in Suid-Afrika : natuurwetenskappe

 

Abstract

Lintwurms het 'n indirekte lewensiklus. Dit beteken daar is twee gashere: 'n primêre gasheer, waarin die volwasse parasiet voorkom, en 'n tussengasheer, waarin 'n ander stadium, bekend as die metasestood, voorkom. Die lintwurm , met sy feitlik wêreldwye verspreiding, is inderdaad seker die bekendste parasiet wat mense besmet. Reeds so vroeg as 1550 v.C. is verwysings gevind na lintwurmbesmetting in mense. Daar is egter 'n groot aantal ander spesies wat tot dieselfde genus behoort. Spesies wat in Suid-Afrika in honde en katte voorkom, sluit die volgende in: en . Laasgenoemde kom in katte (Felidae) voor en die res in hondagtiges (Canidae). Die vraag ontstaan of dieselfde spp.-wurms wat in honde voorkom ook in "wilde" hondagtiges (soos jakkalse) en katagtiges (soos rooikatte) voorkom in Suid-Afrika en indien wel, tot watter mate.


Inligting (afmetings van aanhegtingstrukture) oor lintwurms uit honde is verkry uit ClinVet International (Edms.) Bpk. se argiefmateriaal. Lintwurmmateriaal is ook versamel uit jakkalse en rooikatte (Bloemfontein en omgewing in die Vrystaat) wat spesifiek vir die studie verwerk is.
Resultate toon dat daar wel oorvleueling is tussen die spp.-samestelling van honde en jakkalse (byvoorbeeld ). Die samestelling van spesies kan beïnvloed word deur faktore soos geografiese verspreiding en dieet. Verdere studies kan moontlik meer area-spesifieke opnames insluit vir beide gasheerspesies, met monsterneming uit meer geografiese areas (m.a.w. wat meer verteenwoordigend is van Suid-Afrika as geheel). Dit kan ook gekombineer word met 'n tipe sosio-ekonomiese studie om te kyk na die omvang en rol van informele slagpraktyke in veral landelike gebiede in die lewensiklus van spp.-parasiete.
'n Poging sal daarmee saam aangewend moet word om die graad van predasie deur jakkalse te kwantifiseer, die rol van honde in die lewensiklus te evalueer en dit te vergelyk met die voorkoms van die spp. in beide gashere. Verder wil dit voorkom of rooikatte lintwurms kan huisves wat eie is aan honde (), asook dié wat eie is aan katte (). Die verskynsel moet in verdere studies bevestig en verder bestudeer word.

Parasitologists are most likely the only people that get excited by discussions on tapeworm! For most people the mere notion of tapeworm infections is gross, the first thought usually involving undercooked pork. may indeed well be the best-known tapeworm, yet this genus also comprises several other species. They all share similarities when it comes to the life cycle, which is described as being indirect. This implies that two hosts are involved: the first a final host containing the "adult" parasite (i.e. scolex behind which segments form and develop) and the second an intermediate host containing the larval stage. Once again serves as a good example. The "adult" worm may be 2 to 7 metres long and resides in the small intestine of infected humans. As proglottids develop from behind the scolex, the oldest, most developed proglottids are right at the end of the worm. These contain eggs and when fully developed the proglottid is expelled with the host faeces. Pigs ingest the proglottids and/or viable eggs which "hatch" to form oncospheres. The latter penetrates the intestinal wall and is distributed to muscle tissue (i.e. "measles") through blood and lymph flow. Should a human ingest viable eggs, oncosphere development would progress as it would in an intermediate host, which may lead to cyst formation in various tissues (e.g. liver and brain). As mentioned before, several species of exist, but for the purposes of this manuscript the focus will be on those found in cats and dogs. Work by Verster (1969) and a subsequent review by Loos-Frank (2000) implicates the following species within a South African context: and . The latter occur in felids only, while the rest are found in canids. All the representatives from this genus possess two sets of hooks used for attachment. Measurements of these hooks are also used for taxonomic purposes (i.e. species identification).


The question arises whether the same spp. that occurs in dogs also occurs in wild canids (e.g. jackal) or felids (e.g. caracal) and if so, to what extent. Archaeological evidence indicates that domestic dogs () are not endemic to Africa. They were brought into Egypt from Europe approximately 7 000 years ago (Gallant 2004) and distributed through Africa from there. The jackal () often shares the same parasite and diseases with domestic dogs (Price en Karstad 1980; Walton en Joly 2003; Loveridge en Nel 2004).

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/content/litnet/10/2/EJC141460
2013-08-01
2016-12-05
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