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oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Die uniekheid van die menslike denke

 

Abstract

Besinning oor die menslike denke is ingebed in verskeie kontekste, aangesien daar verskillende soorte denke bestaan, waaronder nieteoretiese en teoretiese denke. Bykomend is denke verbonde aan waarneming, kennis, begripsvorming en taal, asook aan die grense van wat kenbaar is, en aan sekere denktradisies. Die verhouding tussen analise en humor word belig, asook skeeftrekkings wat voortvloei uit die oorbeklemtoning van bepaalde eienskappe van die werklikheid. Talle eensydighede in die wetenskap betref die rasionalisme en irrasionalisme (afhanklik van die relasie tussen wat universeel en individueel is), atomisme en holisme, realisme en nominalisme, logisisme en historisme, en legalisme en moralisme, e.s.m. Denke kan nie losgemaak word van begrippe en argumente nie, van die aard van analitiese denke en van die onderskeiding tussen waarheid en geldigheid. Ewe min kan dit losgemaak word van die verskil tussen begripskennis en begripstransenderende (idee)kennis, of van die normatiwiteit van denke nie. Ewe min kan ontkom word aan die probleem van definisie en "primitiewe terme" (ondefinieerbare terme) en van die normatiwiteit van die denke - die status van die kriteria of logiese beginsels vir denke wat die kontrariteit tussen logiese en onlogiese denke moontlik maak. Dit verg ook 'n verantwoording van feitelike kritiek, immanente kritiek, transendentale kritiek en transendente kritiek. Spesiale aandag is gegee aan die verskil tussen 'n logiese eenheid en menigvuldigheid en 'n aritmetiese eenheid en menigvuldigheid. Dit hou verband met die relasie tussen ooreenkomste en verskille, analogiese denke en metaforiese denke, die inherente dubbelsinnigheid van taal-gebruik, die samehang van dit wat uniek is en die impasse van die idee dat die mens 'n wet vir sigself (outonoom) is. Die artikel word afgesluit met 'n paragraaf oor rede en geloof, die idee van die logiese en sosiale konstruksie van die wêreld en die vraag of diere in staat is tot logiese begripsvorming en logiese argumentering.


Reflecting on human thinking is embedded in various contexts, because there are different kinds of thinking, e.g. non-theoretical and theoretical thinking. Thinking is also related to perception, knowledge, concept formation and language and to the limits of what can be known, as well as to certain thought traditions. Attention is also given to ontic traits intertwined with human thinking (such as the relationship between analysis and humour) and with distortions caused by the over-emphasis of certain features of reality. Mention is made of the many ismic orientations in philosophy and the various academic disciplines, such as rationalism and irrationalism (dependent on the relation between what is universal and individual), atomism and holism, realism and nominalism, logicism and historicism, legalism and moralism). Thinking cannot be divorced from concepts and arguments, the nature of analytical thinking, the distinction between truth and validity, the difference between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge (the limits of knowledge), the problem of definition and "primitive" (indefinable) terms, the normativity of thinking (the status of the criteria or logical principles for thinking, making possible the contrary between logical and illogical thinking), and modes of critical interaction (factual criticism, immanent criticism, transcendental critique, etc.). Special attention is given to the difference between a logical unity and multiplicity and an arithmetical unity and multiplicity, to the relation between similarities and differences, analogical thinking and metaphorical thinking, the inherent ambiguity entailed in the use of language, the coherence of what is irreducible and the impasse of the idea that the human beings are a law unto themselves. The article concludes with a paragraph on reason and faith, the idea of the logical and social construction of reality, and the question whether or not animals are capable of logical conceptualisation and logical argumentation.

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/content/litnet/7/2/EJC62252
2010-08-01
2016-12-04
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