1887

oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Vervreemding in die ekstreem : 'n oorsig oor normloosheid en sosiale isolasie in Afrikaanse ekstreme metal

 

Abstract

Terwyl industriële metal, punk en ander vorme van rock alombekend geword het in Afrikaans, bly ekstreme metal oorwegend 'n ondergrondse genre, en afgesien van K.O.B.U.S.!, Mind Assault en Insek is daar nog min in hierdie genre in Afrikaans geskryf. Die term ekstreme metal word hier in navolging van Kahn-Harris (2007) gebruik om kollektief te verwys na sg. death, doom, black en thrash metal, aangesien dit juis hierdie vorme is wat gemarginaliseerd is, selfs binne die metal-genre. Hier word ondersoek ingestel na hoe dié genre in Suid-Afrika, en veral in Afrikaans, ontwikkel het deur die ontwikkeling van metal en die gebruik van 'n moedertaal in metal teen 'n globale agtergrond te ondersoek. Voorts word eerste- en tweede-generasie ekstreme-metal-groepe onderskei: eersgenoemde het op 'n paar uitsonderings na in Engels gesing ten spyte daarvan dat hulle oorwegend Afrikaanssprekend was, terwyl laasgenoemde heelwat meer Afrikaanse lirieke ingesluit het. Tematiese ooreenkomste met internasionale groepe word aangedui, veral hoe die lirieke bydra tot die skep van hul identiteit in teenstelling met die betrokke milieu. Seeman (1959) se vervreemdingsteorie, spesifiek ten opsigte van normloosheid en sosiale isolasie, word aangewend om te bepaal hoe die lirieke van ekstreme metal 'n identiteit in opposisie teenoor die hoofstroom-gemeenskap formuleer deur die dominante norme van die samelewing te verwerp. Identiteitskepping behels altyd insluiting én uitsluiting - die afbakening van grense deur middel van merkers - en hier word gewys op hoe ekstreme metal tematiek en algemene uitsprake benut om 'n alternatiewe identiteit te help skep. In ooreenstemming met sosiologiese navorsing word daar gevolglik aangetoon dat normloosheid in Afrikaanse en internasionale ekstreme metal nie bloot die verwerping van dominante norme behels nie, maar ook die skep van alternatiewe norme, wat ook sosiale kohesie tot gevolg het.


While industrial metal, punk and other types of rock have become well known in Afrikaans, extreme metal remains predominantly an underground genre, and apart from K.O.B.U.S.!, Mind Assault and Insek, little has been written in Afrikaans in this genre. Following Kahn-Harris (2007) the term extreme metal is used here to refer to death, doom, black and thrash metal, since it is precisely these forms of metal that have been marginalised. This article explores the development of this genre in South Africa, especially in Afrikaans, examining the development of metal as well as the use of a first language in metal against a global background. Furthermore, a distinction is made between first- and second-generation extreme metal groups: the former sang in English even though they were often Afrikaans speaking, while the latter incorporated considerably more Afrikaans lyrics. Thematic similarities to international groups are indicated, especially how the lyrics of these groups contribute to the construction of their identity in contrast to the environment in which artists find themselves. Seeman's (1959) theory of alienation, specifically normlessness and social isolation, is used to establish how extreme metal lyrics formulate an identity in opposition to the mainstream community by rejecting the dominant norms of society. The creation of identity always includes processes of inclusion and exclusion - the delimitation of boundaries by means of markers. The article explores how extreme metal uses themes and statements to create alternative identities. In agreement with sociological research, it is hence shown that normlessness in Afrikaans and international extreme metal does not involve merely the rejection of dominant norms, but also the creation of alternative norms, which in turn leads to social cohesion.

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/content/litnet/8/1/EJC62287
2011-01-01
2016-12-08
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