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oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Tematiese fisionomie skep toegang tot drie uiteenlopende 20ste-eeuse komposisies

 

Abstract

Hoe kan drie uiteenlopende 20ste-eeuse komposisies verstaan en waardeer word wanneer tradisionele strukturele samehang, funksionele tonale harmonie en tradisionele operahelde respektiewelik ontbreek? Die doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te toon dat die direkte belewing van tematiese fisionomie 'n konseptuele raamwerk kan verskaf wat 'n mens help om hierdie musiek, wat dikwels as kompleks en ontoeganklik beskou word, beter te verstaan. Om hierdie doel te bereik, word die gestalte en kontoere van melodiese strukture in hulle oorspronklike ritmiese gestaltes ondersoek. Die eerste gedeelte van die artikel is 'n historiese perspektief op die melodieleer wat die tradisionele verwaarlosing van melodie in die studie van musiekteorie, asook musikale poëtiek, retoriek en estetiese aangeleenthede, betrek. In die tweede gedeelte word aangetoon hoe die direkte belewing van tematiese fisionomie die verstaan van die individuele werk in die geheel kan bevorder. 'n Hermeneutiese benadering neem die veranderende tematiese fisionomie in die loop van drie werke as uitgangspunt. Die komposisies wat in die demonstrasie gebruik word, is Charles Ives se Concord Sonata vir klavier (die eerste maal gepubliseer in 1920), Henri Dutilleux se sonate vir hobo en klavier (1947), en Benjamin Britten se opera Billy Budd (1951). In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat melodiese strukture 'n betekenisvolle rol kan speel in die rehabilitasie van 'n musiekestetika wat nie met eksklusiewe teoretiese kennis en klasvooroordele geassosieer word nie. Deur by buitemusikale aangeleenthede en idees aan te sluit, is hierdie benadering 'n antwoord, al is dit op klein skaal, op die kritiek teen die tradisionele estetika, naamlik dat dit geneig is om die sosiaal-gesitueerde aard van kuns te ignoreer.


In the absence of traditional structural coherence, functional tonal harmony and traditional operatic heroes, how does one make sense of three divergent 20thcentury compositions in which, respectively, these qualities do not feature? The object of this article is to show that the immediacy of thematic physiognomy can provide a conceptual framework to help understand this music, which is often regarded as complex and inaccessible. Melodies normally speak directly to the listener because they seem to represent the face of the music. Depending on a person's frame of mind, a particular face may communicate various messages. Although a melodic construct as a static image may signify a specific mood (Affekt), its potential to generate meaning increases dramatically when the lines and contours change in the course of a work. In this article melodic structures are investigated in their original rhythmical state. The article has two main parts, the first dealing with thinking and the second with doing. Firstly, my point of departure is a historical perspective on melody as a field of knowledge, showing the traditional neglect of melody in the study of music theory. In 1989 Carl Dahlhaus regarded the study of melody as the poorest discipline of traditional music theory (1989:66). Nevertheless, Igor Stravinsky, one of the most prominent composers of the 20th century, states that "melody must keep its place at the summit of the hierarchy of elements that make up music. Melody is the most essential of these elements, not because it is immediately perceptible, but because it is the dominant voice of the symphony - not only in the specific sense, but also figuratively speaking" (1947:40).

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/content/litnet/8/2/EJC62297
2011-08-01
2016-12-05
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