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- Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012
African Journal of Health Professions Education - Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012
Author G. Van ZylSource: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4 (2012)More Less
As a faculty of health sciences we have regular internal and external evaluation of our programmes, which, among other things, impact on our regulations. I view these regulations as the signs on a map, guiding us as lecturers and students. The regulations are therefore very important and form the foundation of managing a programme and assisting students in navigating programmes in a structured manner.
South African Association of Health Educationalists (SAAHE) Distinguished Educator for 2012 - keynote address to SAAHE - Ensuring effective practice: Understanding who our students are : forumAuthor Wendy McMilllanSource: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4 (2012)More Less
This presentation uses a literature review to examine the context of the conference theme - 'From practise to practice'. It interrogates who our current cohort of students are and what this means for how they should be taught. The presentation is premised on the assumption that quality teaching and learning has the potential to develop skilled and competent health practitioners. Further, it assumes that effective learning depends on the appropriateness of the teaching, and that appropriate teaching is impossible without an understanding of who the learners are. To this end, the presentation commences with an examination of the current cohort of students - those who entered health sciences programmes in 2012. Thereafter, discussion turns to appropriate teaching strategies for these students.
Source: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 4 –9 (2012)More Less
Objective. Students' perspectives on clinical teaching attributes can contribute to knowledge on teaching and learning in clinical education. The objective of the study was to report on Nigerian physiotherapy students' perceptions of the clinical teaching skills of their teachers.
Design and setting. A cross-sectional survey conducted in five physiotherapy training institutions in Nigeria.
Subject. Physiotherapy students (N=203) in the clinical phase of their training participated in the study.
Outcome measure. The validated 25-item McGill Clinical Teacher Evaluation (CTE) tool was used to rate the students' perceptions of the attributes of their clinical teachers.
Results. Overall the students rated their teachers high on the CTE scale; women rated their teachers higher than their male counterparts. Clinical teachers who are academicians and/or had doctoral degrees were rated higher than clinicians and/or those with bachelor degrees only. Students from two long established programmes not only rated their teachers higher, but were also more satisfied and positively challenged during clinical rotations than those from relatively new programmes.
Conclusions. This study found that overall Nigerian physiotherapy students rated the teaching attributes of their clinical teachers highly. The nature of the work appointment (academic or clinical) of their teachers, as well as highest level of academic qualification achieved, influenced student ratings of their teachers. Students found the clinical rotations offered by well-established programmes more challenging and satisfying.
Determinants of effective medical intern training at a training hospital in North West Province, South AfricaSource: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 10 –14 (2012)More Less
Background. Medical internship that entails training as a doctor and working in an accredited facility under supervision within the limits of a well-defined scope prepares the professional for independent, competent, ethical medical practice. In South Africa medical internship is managed by the Health Professions Council of South Africa and was changed from 1 to 2 years in 2008. Mandatory rotations include internal medicine, obstetrics/gynaecology, paediatrics, surgery and family medicine. The researchers investigated the determinants of effective training during internship at an accredited hospital following concerns of incompetence of medical interns at the end of training.
Method. A qualitative study using individual interviews was done among 7 purposefully selected doctors who had completed internship at Rustenburg Hospital. Thematic analysis was done.
Results. Determinants of effective training in internship were identified as good quality supervisors, effective supervision, adequate opportunity to experiential learning, conducive environment, good support system (hospital management, hospital staff, academic opportunities), personal attributes and reasonable work load.
Conclusion. The need for accredited training institutions to create conducive training environments based on the identified determinants was identified.
Source: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 15 –21 (2012)More Less
Context. Most South African medical schools have, in the past decade, introduced changes in their curricula. In our experience we have found that such changes can affect students' knowledge and understanding of physiology.
Aim. The current study was undertaken to determine the perceptions of educators regarding the impact of curricular change on the knowledge and understanding of physiology by medical students in South Africa.
Methods. A survey of physiologists teaching medical students in South African medical schools was undertaken by means of a questionnaire.
Results. There were 20 participants in the current study. Demographic data revealed that they came from 6 out the 8 South African medical schools; 80% had PhDs; 70% had been teaching physiology for more than 10 years and that a similar percentage (80%) were experienced in teaching three or more physiological systems. In addition, 20% of the current participants had additional educational qualifications. In the opinion of the physiologist educators surveyed, 60% felt that although current medical students found it more difficult to understand basic physiology concepts and that, compared with students 5 - 10 years ago, their knowledge of physiology was more limited, the students nevertheless were better able to integrate their physiology knowledge with clinical subject knowledge. The respondents were divided as to whether or not current medical students found it more difficult to understand pathophysiology than those students 5 - 10 years ago. In addition, nearly 60% of the staff surveyed were concerned that physiology, as a cognate discipline in South Africa, was under threat due to medical curricular change.
Discussion and conclusion. The results of the survey provide a snapshot of the current state of medical students' knowledge and understanding of physiology in South Africa from the educators' perspective. It would be interesting to know whether the concerns raised by the participants reflect an international trend. Physiologists and curriculum planners/organisers need to take cognizance of the issues highlighted in the current study.
Author Farai Daniel MadzimbamutoSource: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 22 –27 (2012)More Less
Objectives. There are 19 physician anaesthesia training programmes within the 16 Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) region countries, all based in 7 countries. With a new MMed Anaesthesia programme starting in Botswana, the study sought to compare the curricula of these programmes, identifying the similarities and differences.
Design. Course programme directors were contacted for information, other information was sought from the Internet and following up literature references. Follow-up telephone and email conversations were used to fill in gaps where possible. Document analysis and tabulation of results were done.
Results. Of the 19 programmes there was little or no information on 6 (2 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and 4 in Madagascar). Of the remaining 13 programmes, 8 are in South Africa. The South African and Botswana programmes use competency-based training (CBT) and use both the college Fellowship and the MMed simultaneously. The remaining programmes in Zimbabwe, Malawi and Tanzania use a traditional curriculum and are entirely MMed programmes. In general the faculties are small, resulting in small trainee intakes. Programme duration is generally 3 years in East Africa (including Tanzania - a SADC member) and 4 years in Southern Africa. Entry requirements are generally similar but internal organisation of the courses differs. This is important for meeting regional harmonisation policies.
Conclusions. This paper adds to the literature and discusses some of the key issues facing training programmes in the region. A mixture of College Fellowship- and university-based MMed programmes with new thinking on curriculum will be required to grow the specialty's role in service delivery.
Source: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 28 –33 (2012)More Less
Background. Members of a profession are committed to codes of ethics and professionalism. The aim was to determine which professionalism attributes dietetics students deem important and relevant to their profession.
Methods. A total of 109 dietetics students from two universities in the Western Cape, South Africa, completed a demographic questionnaire and were required to sort a pack of cards containing 90 attributes of professionalism into 11 piles, ranging from 'least agree' to 'most agree'. An element of forced choice was introduced by restricting the number of cards in each of the 11 piles (Q-sort). PQMETHOD 2.11 was used for data analysis, ranking items by their mode score and giving an indication of which items were most consistently favoured.
Results. Professionalism attributes considered most important included Protect confidential information, Trust, Respect patients' right of shared decision making, Honesty, Good clinical judgment, Communication skills and Carry out professional responsibilities. Interpersonal professionalism attributes were considered more important than intrapersonal or public professionalism.
Conclusion. This study suggests that professionalism attributes are not attained continuously for dietetic students. The findings should form an integral part of dietetic and other health sciences curriculum planning to ensure that the assessment of these attributes is relevant and consistent with development over the years.
Source: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 34 –39 (2012)More Less
The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the processes followed in initiating and managing widening access to allied health sciences education at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. In response to national higher education policy imperatives in South Africa and in anticipation of the first cohort of Outcome Based Education (OBE) school leavers entering tertiary education, the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at the university launched an extensive intra- and cross-programme transformation project in 2004. The project afforded four undergraduate professional programmes, namely audiology, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech therapy, an opportunity to address common educational and contextual drivers. These included, among others, the need for increased access and throughput of historically under-represented students in higher education. An advisory task team, named the curriculum review management team (CRMT), was engaged in envisaging, navigating and containing a complex sociopolitical process involving many stakeholders with disparate ideas, practice approaches, and focal concerns. The use of the Gale and Grant model of change management, augmented by the Community of Practice conceptual framework, to assist with these processes is described.
Author Raymond LeeSource: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 40 –43 (2012)More Less
Introduction. Improving clinical practice skills can enhance a patient-centred model of health care. The objectives of this study were to discover if physicians consider learning about elements of patient-centred care important, and whether the perceived importance is influenced by choice of medical speciality practised and/or number of years in clinical practice.
Methods. Of 310 surveys returned, a total of 268 physicians from one province in Canada were studied. On average, the participants had 16 years of practice experience with family medicine making up the largest component of the study cohort - 41%. Physicians were asked how useful learning about specific topics would be to improve their communication with patients from different cultural or socioeconomic backgrounds. The self-report measures were examined using mean differences among specialities, gender, and correlation with years in clinical practice.
Results. The mean scores were above the scale midpoint for all specialities. The correlation data indicated a negative relationship between years in clinical practice and 2 of the 6 variables studied. Women physicians rated learning about patients' health beliefs higher than men but men rated patient communication skills higher than women.
Discussion. Physicians rated the importance of incorporating principles of patient-centred care into their clinical practice highly, suggesting that they may benefit from practice interventions such as reflection.
Fifth National Conference of the South African Association of Health Educationalists (SAAHE) : 'From Practise to Practice', Bloemfontein, 21 - 23 June 2012 : abstractsSource: African Journal of Health Professions Education 4, pp 44 –92 (2012)More Less