CME : Your SA Journal of CPD - Volume 30, Issue 8, 2012
Volume 30, Issue 8, 2012
Author Bridget FarhamSource: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30 (2012)More Less
The euthanasia act came into effect in the Netherlands in 2002 and was initially followed by a slight decrease in the frequency of euthanasia. A recent article in The Lancet assessed the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and other end-of-life practices in 2010 and the trends since 1990.
Author Ahmed A. WadeeSource: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30 (2012)More Less
Immunology can be defined as a study of the mechanisms responsible for resistance to infection. However, these same mechanisms may occasionally also be responsible for the production of disease symptoms. Until a few decades ago immunology was almost synonymous with microbiology and infectious disease medicine; it has subsequently developed into a major independent discipline.
Source: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 273 –277 (2012)More Less
Mechanical barriers presented by the skin and mucus membranes, together with anti-infective chemicals and enzymes present on their surfaces, impede the access of potential pathogens to the epithelium and underlying tissues. If these are subverted, the interactions of invasive pathogens with various types of pathogen recognition receptors on epithelial cells and resident cells of the innate immune system, especially macrophages, initiate a localised inflammatory response characterised by an early influx of blood neutrophils.
Source: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 278 –281 (2012)More Less
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of disorders with defects in the development or function (or both) of the immune system. Most PIDs originate from mutations in single genes, but polygenic forms do occur. The global prevalence of PIDs varies between 0.3 and 12 per 100 000 population, and is higher in areas with high rates of consanguinity. The prevalence in South Africa is unknown, but according to prevalence data reported from the PID register, these diseases are either missed or not reported. The possible reasons for under-diagnosis are that patients presenting with recurrent, persistent, severe or even unusual infections are treated without investigating the underlying cause, or the diagnosis is missed in the face of the overwhelming burden of similar clinical presentations of infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis.
Source: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 282 –285 (2012)More Less
Worldwide, an estimated 34 million people are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and approximately 3 million new infections occur every year. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region most heavily affected by the HIV pandemic, accounting for over two-thirds of all people living with HIV and for nearly three-quarters of AIDS-related deaths. South Africa has the highest number of HIV-infected individuals in the world, estimated at 5.6 million in 2009.
Author Pieter W.A. MeyerSource: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 286 –290 (2012)More Less
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease that affects the articular joints of patients. The prognosis of the disease varies from mild cartilage degradation to progressive erosive disease of the juxta-articular bone. Progression may be cyclical or unremitting and often severity entails extra-articular manifestations such as RA nodules and vasculitis. A spontaneous remission is observed in 10 - 20% of patients while the majority of the patients progress to relentless severe disease.
Source: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 291 –292 (2012)More Less
The health and economic burden linked to occupational allergies caused by agents in the workplace is increasing progressively. In view of the rapid changes in work processes as a consequence of globalisation and the changing environment and lifestyles in developing countries, the prevalence of allergic diseases is likely to increase further.
The South African Bone Marrow Registry - role in providing unrelated donors for allogeneic stem cell transplantation : more about... immunologySource: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 293 –294 (2012)More Less
The South African Bone Marrow Registry (SABMR) was established in 1991 in Cape Town, as a non-profit organisation at the initiative of professors Ernette du Toit and Peter Jacobs, to provide human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched unrelated donors (MUDs) for South African (SA) patients.
Allogeneic bone marrow and now peripheral blood stem cell transplantation has come a long way since the work of E Donall Thomas in Seattle in the early 1950s. These studies showed that by using HLA-matched sibling donors it was possible to cure certain haematological and metabolic diseases. These include acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia, myeloid dysplasia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anaemia, haemoglobinopathies, thalassaemia, Fanconi's anaemia and storage diseases.
Source: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 295 –296 (2012)More Less
A 25-year-old HIV-negative woman presented to our hospital with a 6-week history of progressive generalised muscle weakness. Her main complaints were limb weakness, blurred vision, difficulty in swallowing and a change in her voice. She was previously healthy and had a normal vaginal delivery 5 months previously. She had no family history of any neuromuscular disease.
Author Chishala ChishalaSource: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30 (2012)More Less
The cardiovascular manifestations of hyperthyroidism are well known. It is less well recognised that angina may be due to coronary spasm caused by hyperthyroidism in a small subset of patients.
I report on a patient who presented with angina and hyperthyroidism in whom repeated coronary angiography revealed coronary vasospasm. The suggested mechanism of the coronary vasospasm is thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease.
Author Chris BatemanSource: CME : Your SA Journal of CPD 30, pp 300 –302 (2012)More Less
International - New drug offers hope for better Alzheimer's treatment
Africa - Community ART delivery
South Africa - SA patent law blocking vital second-line HIV drugs
SA women at significant risk of developing heart disease
Matie probe heralds global TB treatment breakthrough