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- Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa
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- Volume 11, Issue 2, 2006
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Volume 11, Issue 2, 2006
Volume 11, Issue 2, 2006
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 40 –41 (2006)More Less
Author W.F. MollentzeSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 44 –45 (2006)More Less
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 46 –50 (2006)More Less
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 52 –63 (2006)More Less
<I>Objectives.</I> To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of South African children aged 6 - 13 years. <BR><I>Design.</I> Random sampling of schools within each provincial and socio-economic category. Setting. Primary school children from 5 South African provinces. <BR><I>Subjects.</I> 10 195 (5 611 male and 4 584 female) primary school children. <BR><I>Outcome measure.</I> Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg) / height (m)<Sup>2</sup>) was calculated for each grouping (age x gender x ethnic group). Cut-off points for BMI defining obese and overweight for gender and age (6 - 13 years) were calculated in accordance with international standards. <BR><I>Results.</I> There were significant differences in height and mass between the different ethnic groups and genders. This trend was not evident for the BMI values. The prevalence of obesity within the sample was 3.2% for boys and 4.9% for girls, whereas overweight prevalence was 14.0% for boys and 17.9% for girls. When the contribution of each ethnic group was adjusted to the demographics of South Africa these values were only slightly different. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among boys was 2.4% and 10.9% respectively, while obese and overweight girls comprised 4.8% and 17.5%, respectively. <BR><I>Conclusions.</I> South African children show trends of obesity and overweight, similar to values in developed countries about 10 years ago. Intervention strategies to combat an increasingly sedentary lifestyle may need to be developed for the South African context.
Author F.P.R. De VilliersSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 64 –66 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... 64 JEMDSA November 2006, Vol. 11, No. 2 Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy of injection sites was a major problem with the old impure insulins.1 The problem improved somewhat with the advent of the monocomponent bovine and porcine insulins and the current pure human insulins, such that lipoatrophy in particular is now very rare.1, 2 However it now manifests more subtly, with thickening of the skin rather than the formation of lumps and pitting. Even diabetologists have been known to miss it, when not looking for it carefully. The complication has occurred with the new genetically engineered modified human insulins, with and ..
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 68 –79 (2006)More Less
Phaeochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumour of the chromaffin cells which occurs predominantly in the adrenal medulla. To date, germline mutations in five genes have been isolated and implicated in familial phaeochromocytomas. The syndromes include von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome. More recently familial paraganglioma syndromes have been described in which mutations of the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunits B, C and D occur. The presenting features of phaeochromocytomas are due to the catecholamine excess and are variable in their expression as there is diversity in the phenotypes of these tumours. These tumours may result in severe morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular complications ranging from a typical paroxysmal pattern of hypertension to overt cardiac failure and sometimes sudden death. Diagnosis of phaechromocytoma requires the biochemical confirmation of excessive catecholamine production based on measurement of either catecholamines or their metabolites in the plasma or urine, following which the tumour is localised using imaging studies. The measurement of plasma free metanephrines has recently become available for routine use. This test has generated much controversy, but has been advocated as the test of choice in many studies. The management of a phaeochromocytoma is mainly surgical and requires careful patient preparation to avoid catecholamine-induced complications during surgery. This review provides an update on phaeochromocytomas.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 80 –83 (2006)More Less
A 53-year-old woman presented with thyrotoxicosis, which is an unusual manifestation of thyroid carcinoma. Hyperthyroidism associated with malignancy usually occurs with well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma. We show that extensive disease burden contributed to the development of hyperthyroidism, the occurrence of the Jod-Basedow phenomenon and the subsequent death of the patient. This diagnosis and treatment can be challenging.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 11, pp 84 –144 (2006)More Less