oa Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Hyperglycaemic emergency admissions to a secondary-level hospital - an unnecessary financial burden
Background and objectives. Diabetes affects approximately 1 million South Africans. Hospital admissions, the largest single item of diabetes expenditure, are often precipitated by hyperglycaemic emergencies. A recent survey of a 200-bed hospital, serving approximately 1.3 million Cape Town residents, showed that hyperglycaemic emergencies comprised 25.6% of high-care unit admissions. A study was undertaken to determine the reasons for, and financial cost of, these admissions.
Methods. All hyperglycaemic admissions during a 2-month period (1 September - 31 October 2005) were surveyed prospectively. Admissions were classified using the American Diabetes Association classification of hyperglycaemic emergencies. Demographic data, and the reason for, duration of and primary outcome of admission, were recorded. The following costs per admission were calculated using public-sector pricing: (i) total costs; (ii) patient-specific costs; (iii) non-patient-specific costs; and (iv) capital costs.
Results. Sepsis (36%), non-compliance with therapy (32%) and a new diagnosis of diabetes (11%) were the predominant reasons for admission of 53 hyperglycaemic emergency cases. Mean duration of hospital stay was 4 days, with an in-hospital mortality of 7.5%. Mean cost per admission was R5 309. Clinical staff (25.8%), capital (25.6%) and overhead (34%) costs comprised 85.4% of expenditure.
Discussion and recommendations. Hyperglycaemic admissions, costing more than R5 300 per patient, represent a health burden that has remained unchanged over the past 20 years. Urgently required primary care preventive strategies include early diagnosis of diabetes, timely identification and treatment of precipitating causes, specifically sepsis, and education to improve compliance.
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