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- Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa
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- Volume 15, Issue 3, 2010
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Volume 15, Issue 3, 2010
Volume 15, Issue 3, 2010
Author Stephen HoughSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 15, pp 105 –106 (2010)More Less
This edition includes a guest editorial by Ayesha Motala on the historic Diabetes Leadership Forum that was held for the first time on African soil, in Johannesburg, in September this year. The forum emphasised that diabetes is not uncommon on this continent and that its prevalence is increasing. However, identifiable and modifiable risk factors for the development of diabetes and its complications exist and deserve our immediate attention.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 15, pp 107 –108 (2010)More Less
This document is an update of the clinical guideline published by the National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA) in 2000, which aims to improve the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and management of patients with, or at risk for, osteoporosis. The guideline is not limited to any particular patient group and targets all health care workers. This is a detailed summary, which is cross-referenced to the full guideline and is available on the NOFSA (www.osteoporosis.org.za) and JEMDSA (www.jemdsa.co.za) websites.
Author Ayesha A. MotalaSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 15, pp 111 –112 (2010)More Less
It was an historic event for diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) when the Diabetes Leadership Forum was held for the first time on African soil, in Johannesburg from 30 September to 1 October 2010. The forum was jointly hosted by the South African Department of Health and the World Diabetes Foundation (WDF), supported by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and sponsored and co-organised by Novo Nordisk.
The impact of insulin resistance, gender, genes, glucocorticoids and ethnicity on body fat distribution : reviewSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 15, pp 115 –120 (2010)More Less
The metabolic consequences of obesity are highly dependent on body fat distribution and total body fat mass. Visceral adipose tissue in particular has been found to play an important aetiological role in obesity-related disorders. The contrasting fat distribution between genders, with gynoid and android obesity being characterised by increased subcutaneous and visceral fat deposition respectively, may be directly responsible for differences in obesity-related co-morbidities between the sexes. These differences in adiposity are likely to be directly due to the influence of the sex steroids. Glucocorticoids may further modify body fat distribution, as observed in Cushing's syndrome in which hypercortisolaemia leads to increased visceral fat mass. Hereditary factors have also been found to be important, with studies demonstrating that up to 55% of the variance in visceral fat mass is genetically determined. Recently, it has been proposed that insulin sensitivity is a major factor that plays a role in determining fat distribution. Although it is accepted that excess adiposity results in insulin resistance, it has been suggested that insulin sensitivity at the level of the adipocyte may modulate the size of the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. This occurs because insulin resistance retards triglyceride deposition in adipocytes and is therefore associated with reduced adipose tissue growth. It is thought that the subcutaneous depot is the prime site for triglyceride accumulation and, once this depot is lipid replete, triglycerides are diverted to the visceral tissue. The principal determinant of subcutaneous lipid storage capacity is the prevailing level of insulin resistance. This review will discuss all the factors that are thought to influence body fat distribution and will describe the possible role of insulin resistance in this process.
Author P. Janse Van RensburgSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 15, pp 122 –132 (2010)More Less
The phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma) is a hormonally active tumour of neuroendocrine origin. This article reviews the embryology, anatomy, nomenclature and pathology as it relates to the imaging of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The imaging findings and the role of different imaging modalities are emphasised. The application of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine imaging techniques are discussed and illustrated by multiple images. Since the accurate diagnosis and localisation of phaeochromocytoma is critical to patient management, it is important for all physicians to understand the strengths and weaknesses of different imaging modalities during the work-up of a patient. Radiologists must be familiar with both the common and uncommon imaging characteristics of these lesions to diagnose and localise these lesions accurately.
Cepheus recruitment target met : AstraZeneca's survey on undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia in SA ahead of schedule : press releaseSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 15 (2010)More Less
AstraZeneca's national survey to quantify the degree of undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia in this country is ahead of schedule, according to the AstraZeneca clinical team driving the study. Known as CEPHEUS (Centralised pan-South African Survey on the treatment of hypercholesterolemia), the study recruited its first patient in mid-November 2009 and just five months later, on 23 April 2010, the final patient was enrolled. A week ahead of the projected timelines, the study has completed the recruitment phase of what is expected to be a landmark survey of 3 000 patients.