oa Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Carcinoid heart disease : two clinical cases and a review : case report

Volume 16, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1608-9677
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1009



We present two cases of metastatic carcinoid tumours, complicated by carcinoid syndrome and by cardiac valve involvement, a well-known, but infrequent, complication. Carcinoid tumours are generally more indolent than other cancers and may have a long asymptomatic phase. The symptoms of carcinoid syndrome generally manifest only once metastases to the liver have occurred. Cardiac involvement occurs in up to 50% of patients, and heralds a poor prognosis. However, a multidisciplinary team approach has improved the prognosis and quality of life for patients with carcinoid heart disease. Therapy includes somatostatin analogues and treatment for heart failure, removal of primary or metastatic tumour deposits, valve replacement in the presence of valvular involvement, and radioisotopes therapy.

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