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- Volume 18, Issue 1, 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Volume 18, Issue 1, 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1, 2013
Author Willie MollentzeSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18 (2013)More Less
It was with some trepidation that I accepted the nomination for editor-in-chief of JEMDSA, and I wish to thank the constituent membership for entrusting me with this position. My first official duty is to thank Professor Stephen Hough, the outgoing and founding editor of JEMDSA, for his tireless efforts over 16 years to establish and nurture the journal to become the success that it currently is. In his last editorial, Stephen outlined a number of challenges and also set several goals for the incoming editor-in-chief and editorial board. With the support of the newly elected editorial board and with the aid of Dr Douw Greeff and his capable team at Medpharm Publications, it may be possible to achieve most, if not all, of these objectives.
Author Daksha JivanSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 6 –8 (2013)More Less
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18 (2013)More Less
Dominoes are an interesting gaming tool. They are simple building blocks that can be assembled in countless ways to generate a large variety of games. These games can be simple or really complex. Some games involve game play that is almost mechanical, while others require great skill and strategy.
New guidelines for the use of insulin infusion pumps in South Africa : a welcome document which is well overdue : guest editorialSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 13 –14 (2013)More Less
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy using insulin infusion pumps has been used for over 20 years. The early mechanical insulin pumps of the last century were fraught with problems which included mechanical breakdowns, blocked cannulas and an increased incidence of ketoacidosis. These challenges resulted in large-scale abandonment of the use of CSII in this country in the 1990s. Technological improvements in pump functionality, dissemination of accumulated knowledge and the desire to achieve blood glucose values as close to the normal range as possible, have led to a significant increase in insulin pump use throughout the world. In addition, an understanding of the role played by carbohydrate counting in correctly managing appropriate insulin dosing, and an improvement in the accuracy and convenience of self-administered, home glucose monitoring meters, has allowed for more meaningful home testing of blood glucose, an absolute necessity if CSII is to be successful. An increasing body of evidence supports the ability of insulin pump therapy to improve glycaemic control, while reducing hypoglycaemic episodes when used in appropriately selected patients.
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes : 2013 clinical guidelines and recommendations from the Association of Clinical Endocrinologists of South Africa (ACE-SA) : guidelinesSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 15 –19 (2013)More Less
The first external insulin pump device to deliver continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or "insulin pump") therapy was used more than 30 years ago. Subsequently, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) has convincingly demonstrated that stricter glycaemic control, using insulin delivered by multiple-dose injections (MDI) or CSII, prevents and retards the progression of microvascular complications. Technological improvements in pump design and functionality, the wider dissemination of accumulated knowledge and the desire to achieve blood glucose values as close to the normal range as possible, have resulted in a significant increase in insulin pump use throughout the world. An increasing body of evidence supports the ability of insulin pump therapy to improve glycaemic control while reducing hypoglycaemic episodes when used in appropriately selected patients with type 1 diabetes.
Recommendations for the acute and long-term medical management of low-trauma hip fractures : review articleSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 21 –32 (2013)More Less
Hip fractures are the most serious complication of osteoporosis and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Generally, patients who sustain osteoporotic hip fractures are older adults who have a number of comorbid diseases which predispose them to perioperative complications, disability and death. Furthermore, patients who survive a hip fracture are at higher risk of a subsequent fracture. The morbidity and mortality of hip fractures can be substantially reduced by a structured multidisciplinary approach to pre- and postoperative management. This review will focus on the epidemiology of hip fractures, predictors of mortality and the acute and long-term management of hip fractures.
48th Congress of the Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa (SEMDSA) and 11th Congress of the Lipid and Atherosclerosis Society of Southern Africa (LASSA) : abstractsSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 33 –54 (2013)More Less
Lipid accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity in human preadipocytes isolated from different body fat depots : original researchSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 58 –64 (2013)More Less
Background : Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) controls intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes, but it is not known whether ALP is expressed in all body fat depots, or whether it has a similar role at all sites.
Design : Cross-sectional.
Setting and subjects : Subjects undergoing breast reduction and abdominal fat biopsies operations at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital.
Outcome measures : This study compared intracellular lipid accumulation and ALP activity in the presence and absence of ALP inhibitors in preadipocytes that were obtained from different adipose depots. Abdominal and mammary gland preadipocytes were isolated from women and induced to differentiate in culture. ALP activity and intracellular lipid levels were measured at baseline and after 12 days of differentiation in the presence and absence of the ALP inhibitors, histidine and levamisole.
Results : ALP activity was detected in non-differentiated abdominal (134 ± 7.5 mU/mg protein) and mammary gland (136 ± 9.6 mU/mg protein) preadipocytes. Its activity had increased significantly (p-value < 0.0005 for both) by day 12 of differentiation (388 ± 55 for abdominal and 278 ± 28 mU/mg protein for mammary). Preadipocytes treated with histidine had lower fat accumulation (p-value < 0.0005) and ALP activity (p-value < 0.005) than non-treated cells on day 12, while those treated with levamisole had lower fat accumulation (p-value < 0.005), but elevated ALP activity (p-value < 0.05), compared to nontreated cells. Lipid accumulation (p-value < 0.005) and ALP activity (p-value < 0.05) were higher in abdominal than mammary gland preadipocytes by day 12.
Conclusion : ALP is involved in the control of intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes that are isolated from both adipose depots. The ability of levamisole to inhibit this process while activating ALP, suggests that this molecule acts via an ALP-independent pathway, while histidine attenuates both lipid deposition and ALP activity.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 65 –67 (2013)More Less
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome, is a very rare disorder of childhood. It is mainly characterised by the presence of at least two of the following: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism and autoimmune Addison's disease. We report on the case of a 12-year-old Ugandan female patient who presented with features that were most consistent with APS-1 (chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism). Significant clinical improvement was noted following oral antifungal therapy.
Carotid intima-media thickness and its associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Africans, JEMDSA 17(3) 2012 : p. 135-140 : erratumSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18 (2013)More Less
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 18, pp 71 –74 (2013)More Less
A 40-year-old, treatment-naïve, human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV) positive male was found to have a large right adrenal incidentaloma on ultrasound of the abdomen, which was confirmed on adrenal computed tomography imaging. The laboratory workup excluded functionality of the mass lesion. As the radiological examination of the mass raised the suspicion of a non-benign lesion, the patient underwent a right adrenalectomy. Histology, supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains, confirmed the diagnosis of an adrenal leiomyoma. Most of the reported cases of adrenal leiomyomas in the literature are of patients with HIV and/or latent Epstein-Barr virus infections. This case illustrates that benign tumours, such as leiomyomas, can mimic the imaging phenotype of adrenal cortical carcinomas, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas, especially in the HIV-positive population.