oa Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Leiomyoma : a rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma : case study



A 40-year-old, treatment-naïve, human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV) positive male was found to have a large right adrenal incidentaloma on ultrasound of the abdomen, which was confirmed on adrenal computed tomography imaging. The laboratory workup excluded functionality of the mass lesion. As the radiological examination of the mass raised the suspicion of a non-benign lesion, the patient underwent a right adrenalectomy. Histology, supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains, confirmed the diagnosis of an adrenal leiomyoma. Most of the reported cases of adrenal leiomyomas in the literature are of patients with HIV and/or latent Epstein-Barr virus infections. This case illustrates that benign tumours, such as leiomyomas, can mimic the imaging phenotype of adrenal cortical carcinomas, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas, especially in the HIV-positive population.


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