- A-Z Publications
- Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa
- Previous Issues
- Volume 9, Issue 1, 2004
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Volume 9, Issue 1, 2004
Volume 9, Issue 1, 2004
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... Study shows most diabetics are obese and don't meet health recommendations More than half of adult diabetics in the USA are obese and many more have higher-than-recommended blood pressure, cholesterol levels and blood sugar, all factors that raise their risk of complications and death, a government study found. So says Catherine Cowie, of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, one of the authors of a study published in the 21 January 2004 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Overall, only about 7% of adults with diabetes studied had attained the recommended levels for blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol, the study of health surveys from 1999 to 2000 and 1988 to 1994 found. The surveys involved a total of ..
Author Fraser PirieSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... The SEMDSA Congress, to be held on the Durban beachfront at the end of March 2004, promises to be an inspiring mix of international expertise and local input. The international expertise comes in the able forms of Professors Graham Hitman, William Young, Steven Kahn and Roy Homburg, each a leading authority in their own area of interest. Graham Hitman will provide insight into the complex genetics of type 2 diabetes and review the ever-present problem of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. This theme will be extended with a focus on dyslipidaemia, by Professor John Reckless, as part of the LASSA overlap session. The SEMDSA 2004 committee has supported the 'Proudly South African' ..
Population differences in parameters of bone and mineral metabolism - the African fracture paradox : editorialAuthor Stephen HoughSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9, pp 5 –6 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... The World Health Organisation (WHO)'s definition of osteoporosis is based on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) and consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture.1 As such, a risk factor (i.e low BMD) has been elevated to assume the status of a diagnostic criterion.2 In South Africa, the incidence of osteoporosis in white, Asian and mixed-race populations appears to be similar to incidence rates in developed countries. Osteoporotic fractures are, however, 10 times less prevalent in our black populations,3 which is also the case in the USA.4 Whereas the lower prevalence of fractures in Afro- Americans is readily explained on the basis of an approximate 15% higher BMD ..
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9, pp 8 –14 (2004)More Less
<I>Objectives.</I> To investigate dietary changes occurring with urbanisation of black South African women of different ages and how these changes influence biochemical markers of bone turnover. <br><I>Design.</I> Biochemical markers of bone turnover and resorption were determined in a subset of subjects living in the North West province of South Africa (one rural and one urban area). Women aged 15 - 25 years and 55 - 65 years were included. Food intake was measured using food frequency questionnaires. Biochemical markers were correlated with relevant changes in dietary intake that occurred with urbanisation. <br><I>Results.</I> Major findings included a significant increase in intake of animal protein, combined with very low calcium intake (< 400 mg/day). Bone turnover decreased with urbanisation as measured using osteocalcin, and bone resorption increased with urbanisation as measured with N-telopeptides from type 1 collagen (NTx), while bone formation stayed constant. These findings were prominent in the group of active growing girls (aged 15 - 25 years). Significant negative correlations were found between NTx and body mass index (BMI), indicating the protective effect of higher BMI on bone mass. Urinary calcium was significantly positively correlated with dietary protein, calcium/protein ratio and with fibre intake. <br><I>Conclusions.</I> The changes in biochemical markers were clearer in the younger group of women and changes in diet with urbanisation seemed to have an impact on this group. Changes in bone accretion at adolescence can compromise bone strength during menopause and ageing as peak bone mass should be attained at the end of adolescence and up to age 30 years.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9, pp 14 –17 (2004)More Less
<I>Objective.</I> Current models of islet neogenesis either cause substantial pancreatic damage or continuously stimulate the pancreas, making these models unsuitable for the study of early events that occur in the neogenic process. We aimed to develop a method where the initial events that culminate in increased pancreatic endocrine mass can be studied. <br><I>Design and methods.</I> Ten 12-week-old female Wistar rats were subjected to a midline laparotomy, the pancreas was isolated and the main pancreatic duct was occluded for 60 seconds. The pancreas was released and carefully relocated within the abdomen. Ten age-, strain- and sex-matched control rats were subjected to a sham operation. The animals were killed 56 days post occlusion, and the pancreata excised and fixed for histological analysis. Body, pancreatic and hepatic weights were noted at termination and serum was taken for analysis. The endocrine-toexocrine ratio was calculated and the number of endocrine cells in each islet from the sectioned pancreata was counted. <br><I>Results.</I> Occlusion of the main pancreatic duct for 60 seconds results in an increase in endocrine mass by 80% 56 days post occlusion. This constitutes an increase in endocrine units (1 - 6 cells), and in small (7 - 30 cells), medium (31 - 60 cells) and large (> 60 cells) islets by 85%, 96%, 95% and 71% respectively. <br><I>Conclusion.</I> Brief occlusion of the main pancreatic duct results in an increase in pancreatic endocrine mass. An increase in endocrine units and small islets is indicative of islet neogenesis. Therefore, owing to the briefness of the stimulation, this model can therefore be used to study the initial events that occur during the neogenic process.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9, pp 18 –20 (2004)More Less
Allergic reactions to insulin are distinctly unusual with recombinant human insulin. When they occur, however, they can be associated with severe symptoms, making it difficult to treat patients who are insulin-dependent. We report here on a patient with generalised allergy to human insulin who underwent successful desensitisation.
Source: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9, pp 22 –24 (2004)More Less
The algorithm presented in this article is in use at the University of Pretoria academic hospitals. We have found that even though the guidelines as provided by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) are excellent, some detail such as intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) insulin adjustment are often lacking but are essential for busy ward staff and physicians in training. This protocol is aimed at treatment in the public sector and therefore does not address the use of insulin analogues in this setting. The ADA propose separate algorithms for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (HONKC). We have combined this into one protocol for ease of use. This protocol is for adult patients as a different algorithm is needed for paediatric patients. In the algorithm Actrapid may be replaced by Humulin R. This algorithm could probably be used in community hospitals as well.
40th SEMDSA, 8th LASSA and 8th DESSA Congress, 27 - 30 March 2004, Holiday Inn Durban-Elangeni, Durban : abstractsSource: Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa 9, pp 26 –48 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... ?-Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes. SE Kahn. VA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Islet ?-cell function is critical in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes, alterations in insulin production and secretion along with insulin resistance are major contributors to the development of hyperglycemia. A number of different approaches have been used to assess ?-cell function including examining the early phase secretory responses to oral or intravenous glucose challenges and the ability of the ?-cell to convert proinsulin to insulin. All these are defective in type 2 diabetes and progression of these impairments is responsible for the worsening of hyperglycemia that is observed ..