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- Volume 2, Issue 2, 2005
SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance - Volume 2, Issue 2, 2005
Volume 2, Issue 2, 2005
Source: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 244 –250 (2005)More Less
The main objective of the study was to assess the utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services among mothers registered for services at Nyanza Provincial Hospital in Kenya. A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect primary and secondary data. The study population was 133 clients registered for PMTCT services. The study revealed that 52.4% of clients received PMTCT information at the health facility without prior knowledge about intervention, 96% waited for more than 90 minutes, and 89% took less than 10 minutes for post-test counselling. Knowledge of MTCT and PMTCT was inadequate even after counselling, as participants could not recall the information divulged during counselling. In addition, 80% of clients did not present for follow-up counselling irrespective of HIV status, and 95% did not disclose positive HIV status to spouses/relatives for fear of stigma, discrimination and violence. Inadequate counselling services delivered to clients affected service utilisation, in that significant dropout occurred at the stages of HIV result (31.5%), enrollment (53.6%), and delivery (80.7%). Reasons for dropout included fear of positive HIV result, chronic illness, stigma and discrimination, unsupportive spouse and inability to pay for the services.
Prevention of HIV and other STIs in rural Senegal : a study of prevention-related events collected by sentinel observers : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 251 –257 (2005)More Less
We conducted a study of AIDS / STI prevention-related events based on a network of sentinel observers over a 35-month period in three rural communities of Senegal (May 2000 - March 2003). In one of these communities we also conducted a population-based study on self-reported prevention events and attitudes towards AIDS. Sentinel observers recorded 1 590 AIDS / STI prevention-related events. More than half of the reported events were radio programmes. The proportion of events on the occasion of which therapies was addressed increased significantly between 2000 and 2001, from less than 3% to about 10%, while sharp decreases in the proportion of events dealing with condoms and STIs, both from around 25% to less than 15%, were observed at the same time. The population-based survey indicated that men were more influenced by individual events like informal discussions or radio programmes while women seemed to be more influenced by collective events such as public meetings and school education.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV and its prevention : awareness and knowledge in Uganda and Tanzania : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 258 –266 (2005)More Less
Awareness and knowledge about HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and preventive measures in different population groups and health personnel were analysed in future intervention areas in western Uganda and southwestern Tanzania. In Uganda, a total of 751 persons (440 clients of antenatal and outpatient clinics, 43 health workers, 239 villagers, 29 traditional birth attendants) and in Tanzania, 574 persons (410 clients, 49 health workers, 93 villagers, 18 traditional birth attendants) were interviewed.When given options, knowledge on transmission during pregnancy and delivery in women was 93% and 67% in Uganda and Tanzania respectively, and 86% and 78% for transmission during breastfeeding. In Uganda 59% of male interviewees did not believe that HIV is transmitted during breastfeeding. Expressed acceptance of HIV testing was above 90% in men and women in both countries, but only 10% of the clients in Uganda and 14% in Tanzania had been tested for HIV infection. Health workers' knowledge regarding MTCT was acceptable, while traditional birth attendants' knowledge on both MTCT and preventive measures was extremely poor. Recommendations on infant feeding were not compatible with WHO recommendations for HIV-infected women. If prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) interventions are to be accepted by the population and promoted by health personnel, thorough orientation and training are mandatory.
Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 267 –276 (2005)More Less
South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through a series of interdisciplinary collaborative workshops. This paper reports the process of developing and culturally adapting the brief risk reduction counselling intervention. The processes used for adapting the HIV risk reduction counselling for South Africa provides a potential model for conducting technology transfer activities with other HIV prevention interventions. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to transfer HIV prevention technologies.
Perceived HIV / AIDS impact among staff in tertiary institutions in the Eastern Cape, South Africa : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 277 –285 (2005)More Less
A descriptive questionnaire-based study was undertaken among staff in tertiary institutions in the Eastern Cape Province.The objective of the study was to explore perceived HIV / AIDS impact on duties at work, staff morale, job satisfaction and workload among a proportionate sample of 872 employees in eight randomly selected tertiary institutions. The results of the study showed that HIV / AIDS impacts negatively on duties at work, lowers staff morale and increases staff workload.
Source: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 286 –295 (2005)More Less
This paper provides a framework analysing the response of South African companies to HIV / AIDS. Drawing on three case studies of companies, each with over 20 000 South African-based employees, we identify six 'drivers' that influence corporate behaviour regarding HIV / AIDS: legal requirements, voluntary regulation, business costs, social pressures, visibility of the disease, and individuals within companies. We suggest that costs calculations, while possibly underestimating indirect and macro-implications, are not key in driving company responses to HIV / AIDS. The law and voluntary regulation have influenced, but not determined, the response of companies to HIV / AIDS. Social pressures on companies are of importance, but the scale and complexity of need in South Africa has seen the deflecting of this driver. Of greater reference in determining responses has been the social pressure of other companies' responses. The general visibility of the AIDS epidemic is also a significant factor in explaining companies' responses to HIV / AIDS. Moreover, the visibility of HIV / AIDS within companies has influenced the responses of often relatively weak, internal agents who have been attempting to drive companies' HIV / AIDS programmes.
We conclude that external drivers - legal requirements, economic performance, and social pressures - have framed corporate responses to HIV / AIDS to a degree, but have generally been weak. Moreover, there has been relatively little synergy between these external drivers and the internal drivers - voluntary regulation, visibility, and company HIV / AIDS 'champions' - that could propel companies into pro-active, bold responses to HIV / AIDS.
HIV / AIDS and Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impact on Farming Systems, Agricultural Practices and Rural Livelihoods - An Overview and Annotated Bibliography, Tanja R. Muller : book reviewAuthor Scott DrimieSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 296 –297 (2005)More Less
The publication is the first in a 3-part series produced by the African Women Leaders in Agriculture and the Environment (AWLAE) Programme based at Wageningen University, which has the overall objective of providing a resource base on the most critical issues in rural development in the context of HIV and AIDS. The second publication will explore the linkages between gender and HIV/AIDS, with a focus on rural women and their role in food security and caregiving. The third publication will discuss the epidemic as a wider development issue, as well as focus on agriculture-based mitigation strategies.
HIV / AIDS, Gender and Rural Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment, Tanja R. Muller : book reviewAuthor Janet SeeleySource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 297 –298 (2005)More Less
This volume is the second in a series of three which aims to provide a resource base on 'crucial issues' to consider in rural development in sub-Saharan Africa today. In this volume, which focuses on gender and rural livelihoods, Tanja Muller sets out to provide a simple and accessible source book for students, researchers and others interested in this important issue. In this she succeeds. This is a slim volume: part 1 offers an excellent overview of the topic in less than 100 pages, while the bibliography is even shorter, so that in the space of a few hours the reader can gain an understanding not only of useful references but also the themes and ideas that are raised by the interface between gender and HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.
3rd African Conference on Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research organised by SAHARA (Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance) : conference announcementSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2 (2005)More Less