- A-Z Publications
- SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance
- Previous Issues
- Volume 2, Issue 3, 2005
SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance - Volume 2, Issue 3, 2005
Volume 2, Issue 3, 2005
Estimates of eligibility for antiretroviral treatment (ART) and projected ART impact on AIDS mortality among South African educators : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 304 –310 (2005)More Less
The study assessed the proportion of HIV-infected educators that need antiretroviral treatment (ART) according to current criteria, and estimated the impact of ART on AIDS mortality by modelling scenarios with and without access to ART. Specimens for HIV testing were obtained from 17 088 educators and a sub-sample of 444 venous blood specimens from HIV-positive educators was selected for a CD4 cell count analysis. The Spectrum model package was used for estimating AIDS-associated mortality and projecting the impact of ART scenarios. The results of the CD4 cell count analysis in the HIV-positive educator study population showed that 8% had fewer than 100, 22% fewer than 200, 52% fewer than 350, and 72% fewer than 500 CD4 cells/mm3. Based on the proportion of HIV-positive educators with a CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm3 we estimated that in 2005 approximately 10 700 educators would need ART according to current SA government guidelines. For the baseline scenario without ART the number of AIDS deaths among HIV-infected educators was projected to increase from 1 992 deaths in 2000 to 5 260 in 2010. The number of projected AIDS deaths in the educator study population was estimated to be 4 414 in 2005, with almost 50% of the AIDS deaths occurring in the 35 - 44 age group. The estimates suggest that in 2005 9.1% of the HIV-infected educators, or 1.2% of the total educator population, will be dying of AIDS. By 2010, a reduction of almost 50% in AIDS deaths was estimated for the treatment scenario with 90% ART coverage, compared with the baseline scenario without treatment. The ART impact scenarios illustrate that a relatively high ART coverage would be needed to ensure a substantial impact of ART on HIV / AIDS-associated mortality.
Phase III microbicide trial methodology : opinions of experienced expanded safety trial participants in South Africa : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 311 –319 (2005)More Less
In preparation for effectiveness trials of candidate vaginal microbicides, scientists are debating trial design and implementation challenges, including choice of control arm(s), product-sharing across arms, and visit schedules. This study involved a survey of South African women participating in an expanded safety trial of the candidate microbicide Carraguard gel. The first 100 consenting women who attended the study clinics in Ga-Rankuwa and Gugulethu (total N = 200) were interviewed; all women had been using a study gel for at least 6 months at the time of the interview. The study found that many participants thought that including a condoms-only arm would result in increased product-sharing, male partner resistance to trial participation and decreased enrollment; no clear patterns emerged regarding the potential effect on condom use and cohort retention. The majority of women preferred a monthly visit schedule, would be willing to use a product for 2 years, and thought that their product use would not decrease over time. Thus flexibility in trial design and implementation strategies is needed until evidence-based decisions can be made. When including a condoms-only arm, extra efforts should be made to explain the importance of all study arms to potential participants and to measure adherence and product-sharing.
Source: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 320 –332 (2005)More Less
Malawi, a very poor country located in southern Africa, is no exception to the growing trend and severity in HIV prevalence. By the end of 2003 there were 900 000 adults and children in Malawi living with HIV / AIDS. Adult prevalence was estimated to be 15%, which is higher than the 7.1% average rate for sub-Saharan Africa. In order to understand the spread of HIV / AIDS it is imperative to address the economic, social, cultural, and political issues that impact on women's contraction and spread of the virus. We do so in this paper by critically examining the gendered context of HIV / AIDS with reference to Malawi. The theoretical framework for this research focuses on poverty, gender relations, regional migration patterns, and global economic changes which place women in highly vulnerable situations. The study was conducted in a low-income area in Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi. In 2003 and 2004, 60 randomly selected women who lived in a low socioeconomic residential area completed a structured interview on issues concerning individual economic situations, marriage history, fertility, family planning and social networks, gender, sexual partnerships, and HIV / AIDS. Focus group interviews were also conducted with an additional 20 women. The results of our study indicate that the rising epidemic among women in Malawi is firstly driven by poverty which limits their options. Secondly, gender inequality and asymmetrical sexual relations are basic to spreading HIV / AIDS among women. Thirdly, in spite of their awareness through media and health care professionals, women are unable to protect themselves, which further increases their vulnerability.
Source: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 333 –343 (2005)More Less
Women living with HIV in a stigmatising community need support to cope with their HIV status. In a process of action research, a structured support group programme was designed to meet the needs of women to cope with their diagnosis and interpersonal relationships. The emphasis was on identifying their needs and developing programme material to address those needs through group participation and interaction. The programme was pilot-tested at two sites located in two townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Feedback after each session made it possible to adjust the programme to the needs of the participants. In a formative evaluation, audio-taped sessions, process notes of facilitators, and experiences of the participants were used to identify therapeutic elements, the value of the groups and the problems in the implementation process. Women reported benefit from participation in the support groups. A 10-session structured programme to be used in support groups addressing the most important needs of HIV-positive women was developed.
A comparative analysis of perceived stigma among HIV-positive Ghanaian and African American males : original articleSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 344 –351 (2005)More Less
The purpose of this paper was to address two questions: (i) Do Ghanaian and African American males with HIV / AIDS experience different types and degrees of stigma? and (ii) Is the impact of stigma associated with HIV / AIDS on the self different for Ghanaian and African American males? A quantitative method was used, and the four dimensions of stigma (social rejection, financial insecurity, internalised shame, and social interaction) were identified and measured using combination Likert-type questionnaires. Data regarding positive feelings of self-worth and self-deprecation, stress related to body image, and personal control were also collected in Ghana and the southeastern USA. The sample consisted of 55 men from Ghana and 55 men from the southeastern USA. Results indicate that values for the scales measuring stigma and self-perception were significantly higher for the Ghanaian sample than for the African American sample. Thus we conclude that the Ghanaian sample living with HIV / AIDS experienced a greater amount of negative self-perception and stigma-related strife than the African American sample.
Author Shandir RamlaganSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 352 –353 (2005)More Less
HIV / AIDS in South Africa is a far-reaching, 592-page work which includes contributions by 40 authors who are without exception, accomplished researchers in their various fields. Leading this project are two internationally renowned infectious disease epidemiologists, namely Salim S Abdool Karim and Quarraisha Abdool Karim.
HIV / AIDS and Democratic Governance in South Africa : Illustrating the Impact on Electoral Processes, Per Strand, Khabele Matlosa, Ann Strode & Kondwani Chirambo : book reviewAuthor Sarah PughSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 354 –355 (2005)More Less
The Health of our Educators : Focus on HIV / AIDS in South African Public Schools, O. Shisana, K. Peltzer, N. Zungu-Dirwayi & J.S. Louw (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Malcolm MacLachlanSource: SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance 2, pp 355 –356 (2005)More Less
This substantial report is the product of a research consortium comprising the Human Science Research Council (HSRC) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) of South Africa. It was prepared for the Education Labour Relations Council (ELRC) in South Africa to explore the impact of HIV / AIDS on the supply and demand of educators to the education sector.